Tuesday, August 14, 2007

Parkhurst Boys on board 'The Fairlie' 1852

A Tasmanian pioneer family ...



Portraits by Thomas Nevin of his parents ca. 1871-3.
Courtesy of © Denis Shelverton 2006-2007. ARR.


Thomas Nevin's father, John Nevin, served in the First of Foot in the West Indies, Royal Scots, and at the Canadian Rebellions 1837-8, before embarking on the voyage to Tasmania in 1852. He worked as a pensioner guard on board the convict transport the Fairlie for the passage of his English-born wife Mary and their four Irish-born children, all under 12 years of age:

Thomas James Nevin: (1842-1923) died at age 80
Mary Ann Nevin: (1844-1878) died at age 34
Rebecca Jane Nevin (1847-1865) died at age 18
William John Nevin (1852-1891) died at age 39



The Ratio of Convicts to Free Settlers in Tasmania 1818-1857
Click on image for large view


On their arrival, 10 year old Thomas Nevin joined the small population of free settlers numbering 44,340 in the December 1852 Census. The convict population numbered 19,105 or 30% of the total census for that year. But by 1857, only five years later, with the cessation of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853, the convict population dwindled to just 3,008 or 3.7% of the island's population. The numbers recorded for the Aboriginal population - estimates of 7000 in 1818 to 15 in 1857 (presented here "without bias") - speak clearly of genocide.

Such exposure from an early age to convicts made Thomas Nevin the most suitable candidate of all Hobart professional photographers to undertake contractual commissions to document habitual and repeat offenders, some of whom had been transported convicts sent back to the Port Arthur prison after a further sentence in the Supreme Court, and then back againto the Hobart Gaol in 1873. Nevin began the systematic documentation of prisoner ID photography in 1872, working at the Port Arthur prison on the Tasman Peninsula (1873-4); in the city courts and Supreme Court next to the Hobart Gaol with the assistance of his younger brother Constable John Nevin (1872-1888); at the Municipal Police Office Hobart Town Hall where he was office and hall keeper for the City Corporation (1875-1880); and in later years as bailiff's assistant to detectives serving warrants with known offenders' photographs attached (to ca. 1886). Over the decade and longer, the Nevin brothers photographed more than 3000 (three thousand) prisoners, but most of their photographs were lost, destroyed or sold at auction (one notable auction was  in Hobart in the late 1890s). Only 300 or so (three hundred plus) prisoner photographs survive, selected by archivists or Beattie in the 1900s on the basis of the prisoner's notoriety (and the quality of Nevin's photography, which Beattie admired).



See this complete list of convicts arriving on the Fairlie 1852, compiled by the State Library of Queensland from British Home Office (HO) records which are available on microfilm as part of the Australian Joint Copying Project,online here at source.

From ship's log, Archives Office Tasmania

The Parkhurst Boys 1852

This information is copied verbatim from the website Convict Central: www.convictcentral.com

"Fairlie - arrived in TAS in 1852

The 'Fairlie' is said to have left the Isle of Wight on March 2, 1852 and to have travelled to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) with 30 Parkhurst boys on board.

She sailed from Plymouth on March 11, 1852 with a total of 292 male prisoners and arrived in Hobart on July 3, 1852. All 32 Parkhurst boys were said to have disembarked in Tasmania

Paul Buddee's book, 'Fate of the Artful Dodger' and his research notes which were deposited in the Battye Library in Perth some time later, listed the boys.

The 30 'exiled' boys who were transported on the 'Fairlie' are transcribed below.

Surname Christian Name(s)  Term  Age  Trial Place  Day Mth Year  Offence  Comments


Barlow Henry 10y 17 Clerkenwell 05 12 1848 stealing ... .... .... .... ....


Barton Thomas 10y 15 Manchester 12 04 1849 stealing two 6 pences 5 previous convictions listed


Bettison Edw. 7y 16 Clerkenwell 21 12 1847 stealing brass Listed as a tailor with 3 previous convictions


Brown William 7y 14 Central Criminal Court 18 09 1848 larceny ... .... .... .... ....


Carter John 10y 16 Chelmsford 03 04 1849 larceny Listed as having previously been given 7yrs transportation


Cavill Samuel 7y 16 Taunton 08 01 1849 stealing a drake Previous convictions listed

Collins Hugh 7y 14 Glasgow 25 04 1849 house breaking Listed as having a reckless disposition; Trial date could have been 30/3/1849



Curley Martin 7y 13 Stafford 28 06 1847 house breaking Listed as a vagrant who was once whipped


Douglas Robert 7y 16 Glasgow 23 04 1849 house breaking aka [Edward]


Elson Jacob 10y 16 Stafford 16 10 1848 stealing a jacket 2 previous convictions listed


Flower James 10y 16 Middlesex 13 07 1847 stealing aka [HOMER]; 6 previous convictions listed


Gill John 14y 14 Exeter 06 09 1848 stealing a mare Listed as a tailor who may have been transported previously


Green Joseph 7y 15 Gloucester 07 05 1849 stealing scuffle shears Listed as a canal boatman; Trial date could have been 3/7/1849


Gurney James 10y 16 Middlesex 21 11 1848 stealing Trial date could have been 7/2/1848 or 7/9/1848


Harvey James 7y 14 Taunton 17 10 1848 stealing apples 2 previous convictions listed


Surname Christian Name(s) Term Age Trial Place Day Mth Year Offence Comments


Jackson John 7y 14 Middlesex 07 09 1847 stealing two pies 3 previous convictions listed


Jones John 15y 14 Hereford 31 07 1849 arson ... .... .... .... ....


Jones John 7y 15 Lancaster 15 10 1849 stealing trousers 2 previous convictions listed


Melburne Henry 7y .. Cambridge 01 01 1849 stealing from master aka [MELBOURNE]


Moore Archibald 7y 16 Glasgow 14 09 1849 theft Listed as a turner


Muir Peter 7y 17 Glasgow 17 05 1849 theft 5 previous convictions listed; Trial place could have been Edinburgh


Nutt George 7y 13 Central Criminal Court 15 05 1848 larceny Listed as a shoemaker


Parker James 7y 16 Devon 05 09 1849 stealing horse hair aka [GRANT]; Listed as a farmer's boy; Trial place could be Exeter


Pilgrim John 7y 17 Central Criminal Court 22 08 1849 larceny Previous convictions listed; Trial date could be 22/10/1849


Riley Charles 7y 16 Middlesex 19 12 1848 stealing 12 pairs stockings etc Listed as a blacksmith with 2 previous convictions


Sheepwash Saul 7y 14 Middlesex 06 06 1848 larceny ... .... .... .... ....


Simpson James ... 16 Aberdeen 20 09 1849 theft Listed as a hawker with 2 previous convictions


Smith James 7y 16 Manchester 10 10 1849 felony Listed as a whitesmith who had been in prison 6 times


Usher David 7y 17 Durham 21 02 1849 stealing apparel 2 previous convictions listed


York Zachariah 7y 15 Stafford 02 07 1849 horse stealing Listed as a boat boy


Source: : http://www.convictcentral.com/

NEVIN's PRISONER VIGNETTES

Thomas Nevin later photographed some of these transportees - both those who were Parkhurst boys and those from the adult male prisoner population on board the Fairlie 1852 if they offended or re-offended and were sentenced for terms of 12 months or longer at the Supreme Court and incarcerated at the Hobart Gaol. When the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery held an exhibition in 1977 of 70 or so of Nevin's prisoner vignettes, the curator's press release noted that several adults photographed in the 1870s had been Parkhurst boys.  George Nutt aka White was transported as a Parkhurst boy and Michael Murphy as an adult on the Fairlie 1852, both photographed by Nevin at Supreme Court sittings in Hobart. Neither was photographed Port Arthur, nor were the rest of these men whose photographs have survived. The archivist or collector who wrote the prisoner's name and ship, plus the date "1874" and "Taken at Port Arthur" on the verso in the early 1900s did so with the commercial imperative and an eye to attracting the tourist to Port Arthur, promoted then as now as Tasmania's premier tourist attraction.





From the QVMAG Collections
Nutt: 1985: P70
Murphy: 1985: P:120

The police records for these men and many more who arrived on the Fairlie 1852 are now online at the Archives Office of Tasmania, called Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police..The ship's records of prisoners are also online - see this digitised record Item: CON33-1-107 for the original convicts record book of the Fairlie 1852, with this information about George Nutt:



- and with this information about Michael Murphy: