Tuesday, March 24, 2015

Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith and prisoner George Fisher 1877

Chief Justice Sir Francis Villeneuve Smith (1819–1909) of the Supreme Court Hobart was administrator of the colony of Tasmania in 1874 and most interested in the uses of judicial and forensic photography which he had witnessed on a visit to Victoria in 1872 (TRE1/1/363 1154). He was photographed by the Hobart City Corporation's commissioned photographer Thomas Nevin in the 1870s in an unusually informal pose, his expression one of vindication while examining a carte-de-visite photograph of a prisoner held in his right hand. Sir Francis Smith's professional interest in the uses of judicial photography to increase surveillance and reduce crime was more than justified when he became the victim of burglary himself at his home by absconder and recidivist George Fisher in 1877.

Thomas Nevin's commission to photograph prisoners on arraignment at the Supreme Court from the early 1870s proved most effective when this photograph of Fisher, taken in December 1874 on Fisher's incarceration at the Hobart Gaol Campbell St. for "forging an order to defraud J. E. Risby", was reprinted and re-issued for his re-arrest in 1877 for the burglary at Sir Francis Smith's home. Fisher had been sentenced to 12 years in December 1874 by the Chief Justice, and sent to Port Arthur, arriving there on Christmas Day. He was transferred back to the Hobart Gaol one year later in December 1875. In August 1877, he managed to abscond, broke into the Chief Justice's home and stole several articles of clothing and other items of personal property. The mugshot being examined by Sir Francis Smith in this reprint by Beattie for the Members of Parliament album (1895) was issued with the arrest warrant for Fisher in 1877, as one of Nevin's several duplicates taken in December 1874 - January 1875.

Left: Prisoner George Fisher 1875 (NLA Collection)
Right: Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith 1877 (TAHO Collection)
Photographs by Thomas J. Nevin, Supreme Court, Hobart.

Rough Calendar of the Hobart Supreme Court
Habitual criminal George Fisher was sentenced twice - in 1875 and 1877 - at the Supreme Court Hobart by Chief Justice Sir Francis Villeneuve Smith. These records are from the Supreme Court Calendars which were used by photographer Thomas J. Nevin as an indication of which Oyer sessions he need to attend, and which prisoners he needed to photograph around the date of sentencing. A simple tick next to the prisoner's name showed that a bill was issued and paid, and a photograph taken. The "C.J" initials against a name or sentence indicate the judgement passed by the Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith.

Supreme Court Records, TAHO Ref: GD70-1-1
George Fisher, 1st December, 1875, page 35.

Supreme Court Records, TAHO Ref: GD70-1-1
George Fisher, 31st August, 1877, page 59

In reverse order, these official records document George Fisher's criminal career from this sentence in 1877 back to his earliest record of arrival in VDL in 1845.

1877: arrest and arraignment

Warrants issued for the arrest of George Fisher, 3rd August 1877 and the 7th September 1877.

HOBART TOWN. - On the 3rd instant, by E. Maher, Esquire, J.P., for the arrest of George Fisher, charged with having, on the 32st ultimo, at Hobart Town, feloniously and burglariously broken and entered the dwelling-house of Sir Francis Smith and stolen therefrom one blue cloth sacque coat, value £4, two pairs of coloured blankets, value £5, and other articles, amounting in all to the value of £15, the property of Sir Francis Smith.
For description see Crime Report of the 31st ultimo, page 138, Absconded.

George Fisher was arrested on 14th September 1877

George Fisher per Stratheden, TL, arraigned in the Supreme Court, 27th November 1877 for burglary, sentenced to six years.

1875: transferred to the Hobart Gaol from Port Arthur
This photograph was taken by T. J. Nevin at the Hobart Gaol in December 1874 prior to Fisher's departure for the Port Arthur prison.  George Fisher, per Stratheden, TL, 48 years old, was arraigned in the Supreme Court Hobart, 1st December 1874, sentenced to 12 years for forgery and stealing. He was sent to the Port Arthur prison, arriving there three weeks later on Christmas Day, 25th December, 1874. He was sent back to the Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street, on 5th December 1875, spending just 12 months there.

NLA Catalogue. Photograph by T. J. Nevin December 1874
Verso inscription:
George Fisher, per Streathaden [i.e. Stratheden], taken at Port Arthur, 1874
1 photograph on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.3 x 5.6 cm
Part of collection: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Gunson Collection file 203/​7/​54.
Inscription: "227"--On reverse.

George Fisher’s record 1875-1877 from the Port Arthur Conduct Registers
TAHO Records ref: CON94-1-2_00110_S

George Fisher, per Stratheden, was sent to the Port Arthur prison, arriving there on Christmas Day, 25th December, 1874. He was sent back to the Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street, on 5th December 1875.

1874: Ticket of leave and recidivism

Geoge Fisher per Stratheden was enlarged with a TOL on 15th April 1874

George Fisher had served a sentence of 12 years,for the crime of burglary committed in 1861. He was discharged on 17th April 1874, granted a ticket-of-leave, and re-offended within months.

George Fisher, per Stratheden, TL, 48 years old, was arraigned in the Supreme Court Hobart, 1st December 1874, sentenced to 12 years for forgery and stealing. He was sent to the Port Arthur prison, arriving there on Christmas Day, 25 the December, 1874. He was sent back to the Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street, on 5th December 1875, spending just 12 months there

1871: Letter from Port Arthur
George Fisher appeared to be literate and polite, despite his criminality. On the retirement of the physician  Dr. G.J. Dinham  from Port Arthur, George Fisher wrote him this letter, dated 14th June 1871:

Title: Copy of letter dated from George Fisher prisoner to Dr. G.J. Dinham on his retirement from Port Arthur
Description: 1 photographic print
Format: Photograph
ADRI: NS1264-1-1
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania

1861: Burglary 
In 1861, George Fisher was sentenced to twelve years for burglary which he served at Port Arthur until he was enlarged with a ticket-of-leave in 1874. See the transportation record below for the lengthy list of offences committed from arrival in 1845 until 1874.

1855: Marriage

Name: Boatwright, Elizabeth
Record Type:Marriage Permissions
Ship/free: Cadet
Marriage to:Fisher, George
Permission date:22 Jan 1855
Document ID:
Resource CON52/1/7 Page 126
RGD37/14 : 1855/448

1845: Transportation Records

State Library of Tasmania
FISHER, George
Convict No: 23396
Extra Identifier:
SEE Surname:
SEE Given Names:
Voyage Ship: Stratheden
Voyage No: 261
Arrival Date: 25 Dec 1845
Departure Date: 03 Aug 1845
Departure Port: London
Conduct Record: CON33/1/73, CON94/1/ p47
Muster Roll:
Appropriation List: CON27/1/11
Other Records:
Indent: CON14/1/33
Description List: CON18/1/46

Sir Francis Smith (1819–1909)
Sir Francis Villeneuve Smith administered the colony in 1874-75 and did so again in 1880. The Australian Dictionary of Biography details his birth, education and judicial career.

Reprint by John Watt Beattie 1895
Title: Sir Francis Smith
In: In: Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania No. 66
Publisher: Hobart : J. W. Beattie, [19--]
Description: 1 photograph : sepia toning ; 14 x 10 cm
Format: Photograph
ADRI: AUTAS001136190915
Source: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts
Notes: Exact measurements 140 x 98 mm
Title inscribed in pencil beneath image in unknown hand
In: Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania - no. 66 / photographed by J.W. Beattie

Although this photograph is accredited to J.W. Beattie (1859-1930) by the State Library of Tasmania, it is a reprint made several decades later than the original capture taken in the late 1870s . Here the Tasmanian administrator, Attorney-General and Chief Justice, who was born in 1818, looks like a man in his fifties. He appears to be about 15 years older than his earlier 1860s portrait by Reutlinger (below) which portrays a man in his early forties. Sir Francis Smith would have been an old man of eighty years or so by the time Beattie produced his Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania series in 1895-1900, and clearly this is not a portrait of an eighty year old. It is yet another reprint by Beattie without acknowledgement to the original photographer.

Archives Office of Tasmania
Guide to the Public Records of Tasmania – Section Two –
Governor’s Office Record Group

APPENDIX A Succession of Governors etc,

  • Colonel Thomas F. Gore Browne, 25th Regiment, 11 Dec. 1861-30 Dec. 1868.
    - Lieutenant-Colonel William C. Trevor, 14th Regiment (Administrator),
    30 Dec. 1868-15 Jan. 1869.
  • Charles Du Cane Esq., 15 Jan. 1869-28 Nov. 1874.
    - Sir Francis Smith (Administrator), 30 Nov. 1874-13 Jan. 1875,
  • Frederick A. Weld, Esq., 13 Jan. 1875-5 Apr. 1880.
    - Sir Francis Smith (Administrator), 6 Apr.-21 Oct. 1880.
    - Lieut.-General Sir John Henry Lefroy, R.A., (Administrator), 21 Oct. 1880-Dec.
  • Sir George C. Strahan, R.A., 7 Dec. 1881-28 Oct. 1886.
    - W. R. Giblin, Esq., (Administrator), 29 Oct.-18 Nov. 1886.
    - Sir William L. Dobson (Administrator), 18 Nov. 1886-11 Mar. 1887.
  • Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, 11 Mar. 1887-30 Nov. 1892.
    - Sir William L. Dobson (Administrator), 1 Dec. 1892-8 Aug. 1893.
  • Rt. Hon. J. W. Joseph, Viscount Gormanston, 8 Aug. 1893-14 Aug. 1900.

Sir Francis Smith
Creator(s): Reutlinger, Charles
Date: 186-?
Description: 1 photograph : sepia toning ; 9 x 6 cm.
Notes: Exact measurements 89 x 56 mm, Title inscribed in pencil on verso in unknown hand., Head and shoulders facing front.
Subjects: Smith, Francis Villeneuve - Sir - 1818-1909
Location: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts
ADRI: AUTAS001125883934

Supreme Court Calendars 1870-1882
The "C.J" initials against a sentence indicate the judgement passed by the Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith. The initials "P.O." inidicates Police Office. Dozens of photographs of prisoners taken at these sessions by T.J. Nevin are extant in public collections.

Supreme Court Calendars, TAHO Ref: GD70-1-1

In 1883, Chief Justice Francis Smith signed the death warrant for James Sutherland. Thomas Nevin's hand-tinted carte-de-visite photograph of prisoner Sutherland was pasted next to the death warrant at the Hobart Gaol when the records were bound in book form.

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2009
Items: Tasmania, Supreme Court Death Warrants
Mitchell Library NSW C203

[Above]: death warrant for the execution of James Sutherland at the Hobart Gaol 1883 signed by Francis Smith. Carte-de-visite with hand tinting of James Sutherland taken by Thomas Nevin and Constable John Nevin in the week before the execution, May 1883.

Signature of Francis Smith on death warrant 1883

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2009
Items: Tasmania, Supreme Court Death Warrants
Mitchell Library NSW C203

[Above]:the seal of the Supreme Court on the death warrant with Francis Smith's signature. The Royal Arms insignia of the Supreme Court also appears encircled in Nevin's Royal Arms government stamp on the verso of a number of his photographs of Tasmanian prisoners (QVMAG, SLNSW), and on the versos of portraits of government officials (TMAG, NZNL, private collections.)

Versos: T.J. Nevin [photographer]: Tasmanian prisoners  cdvs
State Library NSW Ref: PXB 274
Photos taken at the State Library NSW 
Copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR

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Saturday, March 14, 2015

Prisoner Richard COPPING and Hobart Gaol executions

Police photographer Thomas J. Nevin took this vignette of Richard Copping for prison records at the Hobart Gaol when Copping was remanded at the Supreme Court on 23rd July 1878. Copping was executed at the Hobart Gaol on 21st October 1878 for the murder of Susannah Stacey. Copping's medical defence, Dr Benjafield, who sought clemency for the 19 yr old youth and was mindful of public discontent with the continuance of capital punishment, asserted Copping had softening of the brain. Dr Turnley disagreed, declared the youth sane, and the execution went ahead. Turnley's post-mortem found no disease located in Copping's brain.

State Library of NSW
Miscellaneous Photographic Portraits
Date of Workca. 1877-1918
Call Number DL PX 158
15. Richard Copping, Murder, May 1878
Digital Order Number: a421015

Police Records for Richard Copping
These notices are from the weekly police gazettes, Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police

Inquest 7 June 1878: wilful murder against Richard Copping
An Inquest was held at Bream Creek, on the 13th ultimo, before Richard Strachan, Esquire, Coroner, on the body of Susannah Stacey, native, aged 19 years. Verdict: - "Wilful Murder against Richard Copping."

Richard Copping, aged 19 yrs, native, free, arraigned for murder and remanded at the Supreme Court Hobart on 23 July 1878. Thomas Nevin also photographed at least two other prisoners in addition to Copping at this session: Francis Sheeran, (Shearan/Sheagan) photographed twice by Nevin and whose cartes-de-visite are also held in the Mitchell collection, SLNSW; and Allan Matthew Williamson, whose earlier mugshot, attached to a parchment criminal sheet, is held at the Penitentiary Chapel Historic Site, Hobart. Williamson's photo dated 1878 and 1888 was removed from his criminal sheet.

Two mugshots of Francis Sheeran 1877 and 1878 (and spelling variations)
The verso of the vignetted photograph on the right carries the inscription -
" Francis Shearan, 'Murder, 8 years, 25-7-78"
T.J. Nevin [photographer]: Tasmanian prisoners  State Library NSW Ref: PXB 274
Photos taken at the State Library NSW copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR

Titles: Williamson Allan Matthew No 22396
Places: Campbell Street Gaol, Hobart (Tas.)
Institution: Penitentiary Chapel Historic Site Management Committee
Object number: PCH_00033

Richard Copping was sentenced to be hanged on 24 September 1878. Thomas Nevin photographed Joseph Graham on this date at this session, printing this mugshot of Graham, like those of Sheeran and Copping as cdv vignettes - i.e. with a cloudy background. Graham's vignette is held at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, Launceston.

Prisoner Joseph Graham(e)
T.J. Nevin [photographer] 1878 Hobart Gaol
QVMAG: Ref: 1985_p_0071 and 1985_p_0071_verso

The Report: Mercury 22 October 1878
Yesterday morning the extreme sentence of the law was carried out in the case of Richard Copping, aged 19 years, who was convicted at the Session of the Supreme Court, held on the 24th September, before Mr Justice Dobson, of the willful murder of Susan Stacey at Bream Creek, on Sunday 12th May last. Efforts had been made by some of his friends to induce the Executive to spare the un happy young man's life, but to no avail, and the Executive at the meeting of the 30th September, decided that the law must take its course. There had been no attempt on the part of the condemned man since his sentence, to deny his guilt, or to rely any further upon, the defence set up by his counsel at the time. Several of Copping's relatives have visited him in the condemned cell. The Rev John Gray, Church of England Chaplain, has been unremitting in his attention to the culprit, in administering instruction and consolation suited to his awful position As the time advmced, especially on Sunday last, Copping appeared to be breaking down, and he wept bitterly in contemplation of the sad event of the morrow. At one time on Sunday evening, Mr Atkins Governor of the Gaol (who, with the other officials of that establishment, had been most kind to him) feared that be would sink under the weight of his fearful forebodings, but he rallied, and seemed refreshed after a night s sleep.  The Sherriff, Mr John Swan, visited him daily, and the poor prisoner expressed himself as very thankful for Mr Swan's attention, asking Mr Swan on Sunday to see him in the morning which that gentleman accordingly did and was with him for some time before the fatal hour .The Rev John Gray spent a great part of the morning in prayer and the young man's feelings were powerfully wrought upon by the rev gentleman's mimistrations.He also partook of the Holy Communion immediately before leaving the cell Copping, although up to Sunday he did appeared to enjoy his meals was supplied by the gaol authorities with what ever food he fancied-but yesterday he refused to take any breakfast and, as on the previous evening, he was completely unmanned, and frequently cried like a child. As the clock struck eight, the.Under Sherriff, Mr Rothwell, proceeded to the condemned cell, and demanded the prisoner, a strong detachment of the Municipal Police being stationed in the yard where the scaffold was erected, and a few visitors who had been furnished with orders for admission, with the representatives of the press, being in attendance the executioner, Solomon Blay, having pinioned the arms of the prisoner, the solemn procession from the condemned cell to the scaffold yard took place, the Sheriff, Under Sheriff, Govenor of the Gaol and other officials attending the condemned man whose cries were soul harrowing. In appearance Copping was a strong and hale young man, and strangers would have taken him to be considerably more than nineteen years of age, The Chaplain preceed the sad cortege , reading portions of the funeral psalms. The Executioner having affixed the rope and put on and adjusted the fatal cap, the Chaplain spoke a few words of exhortation to the unhappy man, and on the usual signal being given, the bolt was withdrawn, the drop fell, and the condemned man, with a slight quivering of the muscular frame was launched into eternity. The Rev Chaplain, himself a young man, on whom devolved for the first time, the solemn and onerous duty of attending a male factor, was evidently much affected, but he held himself under control until the drop fell, and then he found himself unable to proceed with the concluding prayer. The spectators there upon retired. and the usual certificate was signed in the office by as many of the spectators as chose to certify to the execution. After the removal of the body from the scaffold an examination of the brain was made in the presence of Drs Benjafield, Smart, Giblin, and Turnley. It weighed 54 ounces. It was well developed. In a very careful examination not the slightest trace of disease could be detected .The remains were privately buried. The last execution at Hobart Town was that of Job Smith, aged 56 on the 31st May 1875, for the Port Arthur atrocity, prior to which no execution had taken place at Hobart Town since the 2nd December, 1865, when the man William Griffiths was hanged for the murder of two children at Hestercombe.
Source: EXECUTION OF COPPING. (1878, October 22). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 2. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8969412

EXECUTION OF COPPING. (1878, October 22). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 2. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article8969412

More Executions ...
Richard Copping was the third man to be hanged since 1865. Thomas Nevin provided the Hobart Gaol with photogaphs of all five men who were executed there between 1875 and 1884. Two of these photographs are hand-tinted, and all are mounted.


This is a hand coloured vignetted carte de visite in an oval mount taken by T. J. Nevin of Job Smith aka William Campbell on arraignment 11th May 1875 at the Hobart Gaol. William Campbell was hanged for rape as Job Smith, Hobart Gaol 31st May,1875

Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart Gaol,1875
Hand coloured vignetted carte de visite in an oval mount of Job Smith
 NLA Collection nla.pic-vn4270353 
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2015 ARR

These two were executed for the murder of William Wilson, reported in Tasmania Reports of Crime (weekly police gazette), 13 April 1883:
"Referring to murder of William Wilson, James Ogden, proper name Robert Ogden, and James Mahoney, alias Sutherland, have been arrested by P. C. Phillips. of the Campbell Town Municipal Police, and party. Ogden and Mahoney are also charged with the murder of Alfred Holman."

James Mahoney aka James Sutherland
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart Gaol, June 1883
Carte-de-visite in oval mount of James Sutherland

NLA Collection nla pic-vn4270311-v
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2015 ARR

James Sutherland death warrant 1883 signed by Francis Smith. Hand-tinted carte-de-visite of Sutherland taken by Thomas Nevin and Constable John Nevin, May 1883.

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR
Mitchell Library SLNSW:
Creator Tasmania. Supreme Court
Tasmania. Supreme Court - Death warrants and related papers, 1818-1884
Type of Material Textual Records
Call Number C 202 - C 203

Prisoner Robert Ogden (1861?-1883), known as James Odgen,
Photographed by Thomas J. Nevin at the Hobart Gaol, 23 September 1875 for absconding.
Executed on 4th June 1883 at the Hobart Goal for murder.

Source of image:
State Library of NSW
Digital Order No. a421036
Miscellaneous Photographic Portraits ca. 1877-1918
36. James Ogden
Call Number DL PX 158:
Photographs : 54 silver gelatin photoprints, 2 albumen photoprints ; 7.8-21.3 x 5.8-17.5 cm.

Sutherland and Ogden
Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery
Ref: Q16478. 1883? Unattributed.


Henry Stock, carte-de-visite in oval mount by Thomas Nevin taken at the Hobart Gaol on Stock's arrest for murder of his wife, 1884, pasted on a single page facing the original of his death warrant.

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR
Mitchell Library SLNSW:
Creator Tasmania. Supreme Court
Tasmania. Supreme Court - Death warrants and related papers, 1818-1884
Type of Material Textual Records
Call Number C 202 - C 203

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Friday, February 20, 2015

Prisoner Alfred Malden or Maldon 1874

These two images are identical, i.e. duplicates produced by photographer Thomas J. Nevin from his single negative, taken at a single sitting with prisoner Alfred Malden or Maldon on discharge, Hobart, February 1874. Thomas Nevin produced and printed many hundreds of these studio cartes-de-visite in oval mounts - with six or so duplicates - for police use in Hobart from the early 1870s. Alfred Malden/Maldon was a New Yorker. His visit to Launceston Tasmania prior to his arrest in 1871 may have been to see his nephew Alfred, named in his honour, born to James and Eliza Maldon, Launceston, 9th January 1869 (Tasmanian Names Index RGD33/1/47 no 2125).

Two images, cdv in oval mount and duplicate of prisoner Alfred Malden/Maldon
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart, February 1874
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR

Versos: Two images, cdv in oval mount and duplicate of prisoner Alfred Malden/Maldon
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart, February 1874
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR

These two duplicates were transcribed verso in the early 1910s, forty years after their intended use by police, with the number "316" and documented again with the National Library of Australia's catalogue numbers when accessioned by donation in the 1960-1980s. The early 1900s transcriptions show two versions of Malden's name, his ship of arrival in Tasmania, the Tamar (mispelt) and the transcriber's use of the generic date "1874" and generic place of imprisonment "Port Arthur" which was used purely in the name of early 20th century tourism. In many, many instances, this same date and place systematically transcribed across the versos of hundreds of these prisoner cdvs forty years later do not reflect the facts of the prisoner's criminal history at the time he was photographed. Malden was sent to Port Arthur after processing at the Hobart Gaol, and returned to the Hobart Gaol in 1873. His sentence of ten years passed in 1871 was reduced on discharge in 1874 on the condition he leave the colony of Tasmania.

The cdv on the right is relatively clean, and bears on verso the prisoner's name spelled "Malden" which was used and published by the police. The one on the left is damaged due to poor storage and exposure, and bears on verso the spelling "Maldon". These differences could be ascribed to the following:

- the clean one was kept inside a police register, perhaps pasted to the criminal's record sheet which was kept in a bound book as blue-coloured forms at the Hobart Gaol, removed four decades later but kept in a file or box.

- the damaged one was displayed in a rogue's gallery on the walls at the Municipal Police Office, Hobart at the time of Maldon's discharge in 1874, or it was salvaged from the photographer's room at the Hobart Gaol by John Watt Beattie during demolition of the room in 1915, to be displayed, uncased, at his"Port Arthur Museum" located in Hobart in the name of tourism. The Archives Office of Tasmania recorded the acquisition of a duplicate of Malden's "mounted" photograph with nine other cdvs ca. 1975 from William Radcliffe's convictaria museum called The Old Curiosity Shop, which was located at Port Arthur in the 1930s. The ten mounted cdvs from Radcliffe's Museum were images of prisoners George Willis, James Merchant, George Leathley, Daniel Murphy, Alfred Doran, Ephraim Booth, James Martin, Henry Sweet, William Harrison and Alfred Maldon. William Radcliffe may have salvaged as much as was possible from Beattie's museum prior to Beattie's death in 1930 in order to set up his own convictaria museum, naming it with a Dickensian flourish no less.

The Archives Office gives this information:
Agency Number: NG946
Start Date: 01 Jan 1920
End Date: 01 Jan 1970
The Radcliffe family ran a museum at Port Arthur that contained a collection of Tasmanian memorabilia and records. It was known as 'The Old Curiosity Shop'. The 'Radcliffe Collection' was acquired by the National Parks & Wildlife Service in the 1970s. William Radcliffe died in September 1943.
Information Sources: Glover Papers Vol 1 Page 66
The fact that the damaged one is transcribed with spelling of the name "Maldon" indicates two different sources of judicial information used by the transcriber who wrote on these versos at different times in the 1900s, for example, the Conduct Records for MALDON, written on sentencing in 1871, and the Police Gazette records for MALDEN, written on discharge in 1874.

The source for the name spelled "MALDON" is this prisoner's record of arrival in Tasmania, dated 1871. The record shows this information:
Maldon, Alfred
Tried Launceston S.C. 1 June 1871
(10) Ten years imprisonment
Shooting with intent to do grievous bodily harm
P.A. H.C. 10/1/74
Gov. inf. 26/1/74 Residue of sentence remitted conditionally on the Rev. Mr. Haywood [sic: this is not Hayward] undertaking that Maldon should forthwith leave the colony.

TAHO Records
Name: Maldon, Alfred
Record Type: Convicts
Arrival date: 1 Jan 1871
Remarks: Free. Tried Launceston Jun 1871
Index number:47436
Document ID:
Conduct Record CON37/1/10 Page 5830
Conduct Record for Alfred Maldon

The Tasmanian police gazette published this prisoner's name as MALDEN not Maldon in 1874. Alfred Malden was a 39 year old "native" of New York, tall at 5 feet 10 inches, hair light brown, with two moles centre of left cheek. He was tried at the Supreme Court Launceston on 1st June 1871 for the offence of "Shooting with intent etc", sentenced to 10 years, and transferred to the Hobart Gaol. He was discharged from Hobart Town on 25 February 1874 with an "FC" , free with conditions when he was photographed by T. J. Nevin. The condition was that he leave Tasmania.

Source: Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police 1871-1875. James Barnard, Government Printer

Version online at the NLA

NLA Catalogue 
Title: Alfred Maldon, per Tamar, taken at Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Date: 1874.
Extent: 2 photographs on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.4 x 5.6 cm. on mount 10.4 x 6.4 cm.
Context : Part of Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Series: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Two copies of the same image.
Title devised from inscription on verso.
Inscription: "316 ; Alfred Maldon, per Tamer [i.e. Tamar], taken at Port Arthur, 1874"--In ink on verso.

The Radcliffe Museum 1930s
William Radcliffe published a guide to Port Arthur in the 1930s with photographs by John Watt Beattie taken in the early 1900s. The shame of convict heritage, a keenly felt stigma of the times, required concealment of convicts' real names. On page 25, he wrote:
In consideration of relatives who may be living, the actual names have been omitted. If any doubt of the facts is occasioned in any way, the records may be seen on application at my museum at Port Arthur.

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2007 Arr

National Library of Australia
Title: The Port Arthur guide.
Publisher: [Port Arthur [Tas.] : W. Radcliffe, 193-?]
Printer: (Hobart : Cox Kay)
Description: 47 p. : ill., facsims ; 19 cm.
Notes: "From original records at The Old Curiosity Shop, Port Arthur."
Subjects: Penal colonies --Tasmania --History.
Port Arthur (Tas.) --History.
Other Authors: Radcliffe, W. (William)
Cover Title: Port Arthur guide : historical facts
Collect from: Manual Request only from Newspaper Reading Room, Lower Gnd 1
Call Number: mc N 1870 MCL HIST 825

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