Saturday, February 23, 2013

Hector Axup's donation to The Boys' Home for a ship 1887


The Vernon (est. 1867) and The Sobraon (est. 1892) in Sydney Harbor

Hector Axup was one of three master mariners in the family of photographer Thomas J, Nevin. Both men had married daughters of master mariner Captain James Day - Elizabeth Rachel to Thomas Nevin in 1871, and Mary Sophia to Hector Axup in 1878. Their father James Day passed away at the Battery Point home of Hector Axup in 1882. Their uncle Captain Edward Goldsmith was master and commander of the Waterloo, Wave and notably the Rattler, great merchant ships bringing cargo and passengers to Hobart in the decades 1830s to  1850s.

In the same issue of the Hobart newspaper, The Mercury, October 10, 1887, in which the "old boys" of the Royal Scots had placed an affectionate obituary to John Nevin (1808-1887), Thomas Nevin's father, Hector Axup was mentioned in the following article. His donation to the Boys' Home was enclosed in a letter expressing his regret that a training ship was not available. No doubt his wish was informed by knowledge of the Vernon, established in 1867 on Sydney Harbor as a reformatory industrial school for vagrant, destitute  or juvenile offenders, which provided boys with moral training, nautical and industrial training and instruction, and elementary schooling.

The Mercury 11 October 1887


Boys' Home.-The monthly meeting of the governors of this institution was hold yesterday afternoon at the Stone Buildings, Macquarie-street. Mr. J. Macfarlane presided, the others present being :-Messrs. Alfred Dobson, B. Shaw, F. W. Mitchell, and F. Belstead. The minutes of the previous meeting were read and confirmed. A Ietter was received from Mr. H. Axup enclosing a subscription towards the Home, and expressing his gratification at the healthy, happy, appearance presented by the boys at the recent annual meeting. He also favoured strongly bringing up the boys for a seafaring life, and regretted that they had not a training ship for the purpose. On the motion of Mr. Dobson it was decided that a letter of grateful acknowledgment should be sent to Mr. Axup for his donation and the kindly feelings he had expressed.
THE VERNON 1867-1892

Powerhouse Museum
Title Photograph of Garden Island and reformatory ship "Vernon"
Published 1865-1875
Physical Description Albumen prints
319 mm x 263 mm
Manuscript annotation in ink on front of mount 'GARDEN ISLAND AND THE REFORMATORY SHIP VERNON, /​ GARDEN ISLAND, SYDNEY.' Manuscript annotation in pencil on reverse of mount 'Garden Island /​ &​ the "Vernon" /​ from Mrs Macquarie's Chair /​ Sydney Harbour /​ The "Vernon" is a Reformatory ship /​ for boys.'The ship "Vernon" was built in 1839. It was used as a reformatory ship 1867-1892

Title: Vernon (ship)
Author/Creator: Unidentified
Publisher: John Oxley Library, State Library of Queensland 
Date: Undated 

The Vernon
NSW State Records
Agency number: 411
Title: Nautical School-ship "Vernon" ( 1867-1892) / Nautical School-ship "Sobraon" (1892-1911)
Start date: 06 May 1867
End date: ? 31 Jul 1911
Category: Juvenile Justice Centre
Creation: Industrial Schools Act of 1866 [30 Victoria, Act No. 2, 1866]

"An Act for the relief of Destitute Children" [30 Victoria, Act No, 2, 1866] - the Industrial Schools Act of 1866- received assent on 12 September, 1866 and came into force on 1 January, 1867.(1) This Act authorised the Governor to proclaim "any ship or vessel or any building or place together with any yards, enclosures grounds or lands attached thereto to be a 'Public Industrial School' ". Any vagrant or destitute child under the age of sixteen could be directed by two Justices of the Peace to attend an Industrial School and to remain the responsibility of the Superintendent until the age of eighteen, unless apprenticed out or discharged. A child could be apprenticed out from twelve years of age but if twelve or over when admitted, was required to attend the School for a year before becoming apprenticed. Each child was to receive instruction in the religion of his family. The Superintendent was authorised to discipline any child who absconded from the School. Males and females were to attend different Institutions. Parents could be required to pay for the upkeep of their child while attending the Industrial School. (2)

On 25 January, 1867 the Colonial Secretary purchased the wooden sailing ship the "Vernon" and at a cost of more than eight and a half thousand pounds it was fitted up as an Industrial School. (3) The ship, moored in Sydney Harbour between the Government Domain and Garden Island was declared a Public Industrial School on 6 May, 1867. (4)

On 10 May, 1867 James Seton Veitch Mein was appointed Commander and Naval Instructor of the "Vernon" (5) and on 17 May, 1867 he was made Superintendent of the "Vernon". (6)

Admissions to the "Vernon" commenced on 20 May, 1867 (7) and by July, 1868 113 boys had been admitted, 14 of whom had been apprenticed out.(8) Boys as young as three were admitted to the Ship. "An Act to amend the Industrial Schools Act of 1866" [34 Victoria, Act No. 4, 1870] was assented to on 17 October, 1870. This Industrial Schools Act Amendment made provision for boys who were younger than seven when sent to an Industrial School to be placed in a Female Industrial School until the age of seven. (9) Subsequently, young boys admitted to the "Vernon" were cared for by the Biloela Public Industrial School for Girls on Cockatoo Island. On 28 February, 1878 there were nine boys at Biloela. (10)

On board the "Vernon", boys received a combination of moral training, nautical and industrial training and instruction, and elementary schooling. The curriculum was well-defined. (11)

From 1 April, 1878 Frederick William Neitenstein was appointed Superintendent of the Vernon, (12) establishing a system which rewarded good behaviour with privileges rather than by administering corporal punishment. (13) In 1878 trades teaching was abolished. (14) In 1880 the teaching of vocal music was introduced and a brass band was established. By 1881 the "Vernon" boys received an education in the same subjects as children received at any other Public School as prescribed by the Department of Public Instruction. (15) The School had its own gymnasium, a spacious recreation ground, an entertainment hall and a recreation hall on land. (16)

From its commencement, the "Vernon" served as both an Industrial School and a Reformatory. [Although legislation was passed in 1866 to authorise the establishment of reformatories no reformatory for boys was established until 1895]
After the passage of the State Children Relief Act, 1881 [44 Victoria, Act No. 24, 1881] the majority of destitute boys were boarded-out rather than being sent to industrial schools and those committed to the "Vernon" were increasingly boys with criminal charges. (17) By 1892 many had been transferred from charitable organisations (18)

Not until 1904 did the school have a sea-going tender, the HMS "Dart"- a steam and sailing schooner. (19) On 5 June 1906 the HMS "Dart" was proclaimed an Industrial School in accordance with provisions of the Neglected Children And Juvenile Offenders Act of 1905. (20)

On 8 November, 1892 the "Vernon" was replaced by the "Sobraon", which was treble the size of its predecessor. During 1893 it had an average number of 263 boys. (21)

The Neglected Children and Juvenile Offenders Act of 1905 [Act No. 16, 1905] came into force on 1 October, 1905. As the probationary system it established was introduced, the number of children committed to industrial schools and reformatories declined. (22)

The numbers of children sent to the "Sobraon" quickly decreased. The enrolment for 1910 was 231, a 5% decrease on the enrolment for the previous year. These boys were discharged to their parents or guardians or apprenticed out and by the end of July, 1911 the remaining of the boys were set to the Mittagong Farm Home for Boys and the Brush Farm Home for Boys. The "Sobraon" was abandoned.(23)

(1) New South Wales Government Gazette, Sydney, Government Printer, 1867 v. 1, p. 1
(2) Industrial Schools Act of 1866, [30 Victoria, Act No. 2, 1866]
(3) Ramsland, J. "Children of the Backlanes", New South Wales University Press, Sydney, 1986, pp. 116-118
(4) New South Wales Government Gazette, op. cit., 1867, v. 1, p. 1165
(5) Ibid, p.1165
(6) Ibid, p. 1207
(7) New South Wales Votes and Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly, 1881 v. 4, p. 995, NSS Vernon , Report for the year ended 30 June 1881
(8) NSW V & PLA 1868-1869, v. 3, p. 845, Report respecting the Nautical School-Ship "Vernon"
(9) Industrial Schools Act Amendment, of 1870 [34 Victoria, Act No. 4, 1870]
(10) NSW V & PLA 1877-1878, v. 2, p. 663 Report of Superintendent of Industrial School for Girls, Biloela for 1877
(11) Ramsland, J op. cit., p. 140
(12) NSW Government Gazette, 1878, v. 2, p. 1733
(13) NSW V& PLA 1881 v. 4, p.995 NSS Vernon, Report for the year ended 30 June 1881
(14) Ibid, 1878-1879 v. 3 p. 951 Report of Inspector of Public Charities, 1879
(15) Ibid, 1881 v. 4, p. 995 NSS Vernon, Report for the year ended 30 June 1881
(16) Ibid, 1883-1884 v. 6, p.747 NSS Vernon Report for the year ended 30 June 1883
(17) Ibid, 1883-1884 v. 6, p. 747 NSS Vernon Report for the year ended 30 June 1883
(18) Ibid , 1892-1893 v. 3, p. 1395 NSS Vernon Report for the year ended 30 April 1892
(19) New South Wales Parliamentary Papers 2nd session 1904 v. 2, p. 984 NSS Sobraon, Report for the year ended 30 April 1904
(20) New South Wales Government Gazette, 1906, v. 2, p. 3289 
(21) NSW PP 1893 v. 3, p. 707 NSS Vernon Report for the year ended 30 April 1893.
(22) Official Yearbook of New South Wales 1913 p. 554
(23) NSW PP 1910 v. 1, pp. 44-45 Report of the Minister of Public Instruction for 1910 

State Library NSW
Naval Training Ship "Vernon" with cadets' washing hanging between masts - Sydney, NSW
Date of Work: c 1888
Call Number: At Work and Play - 04427

State Library NSW
Foot drill, HMNS Vernon
Date of Work: 1870 - 1879
Call Number: Government Printing Office 1 - 05165

THE SOBRAON 1892-1911

The Sobraon
NSW State Records Office
Ref: 4481 a 026 000001

Leichhardt Library Service
The nautical school ship, the Sobraon.The ships Vernon (est. 1867) and Sobraon (est. 1892) were Industrial Schools for Boys. Boys received a combination of moral training, nautical and industrial training and instruction, and elementary schooling. The ships were made use of this way as there were no separate boys' reformatory schools until 1895. The Vernon was docked at Cockatoo Island. The Sobraon, which replaced the Vernon in 1892, was used until 1911, when the remaining boys were set to the Mittagong Farm Home for Boys and the Brush Farm Home for Boys. The Industrial Schools Act of 1866 authorised the Governor to proclaim "any ship or vessel or any building or place together with any yards, enclosures grounds or lands attached thereto to be a 'Public Industrial School' ". Any vagrant or destitute child under the age of sixteen could be directed by two Justices of the Peace to attend an Industrial School and to remain the responsibility of the Superintendent until the age of eighteen, unless apprenticed out or discharged.

National Maritime Museum Greenwich UK

The 'Vernon' and Other Vessels (HM Ships 'Edinburgh' and 'Blenheim')
by John Lynn
Date painted: 1839
Oil on canvas, 99 x 137.1 cm
Collection: National Maritime Museum
A painting showing the steam auxiliary 'Blackwall frigate' East Indiaman 'Vernon', 996 tons, broadside in the centre. She is shown on her maiden voyage under sail and steam, passing HM ships 'Edinburgh' and 'Blenheim' as they beat down Channel off Bembridge, Isle of Wight, on 21 September 1839.

The painting was subsequently reproduced as an aquatint with the bow only of a further ship on the extreme right. All the three named ships are flying the Blue Peter, as outward bound, and the 'Vernon' flies the Wigram & Green pre-1843 house flag at the main. There are fishing boats tending buoyed lines in the foreground and a cutter in the distance with Bembridge cliff on the horizon. The 'Vernon' was built by Richard Green in London in 1838 to 1839 and according to the aquatint inscription her steam paddle engine was of 30 hp. Her sisters were the 'Earl of Hardwick', which also began life with auxiliary paddles, and the 'Owen Glendower', which was designed with them but converted back to sail only before her first voyage. The paddles of both other ships were unsuccessful and also soon removed. Registered for the London to Madras run, 'Vernon' was sold in 1863 to 1864 and ended her days as a reformatory ship at Sydney. John Lynn was a London artist who specialised in ship portraits, seascapes, coastal views and landscapes. He often combined ship portraits with exotic coastline and ethnographic detailing. Another portrait in the Green Collection showing the Indiaman 'Prince of Wales' (BHC3560) is also probably by him. The present painting is signed and dated 1839.

National Maritime Museum Greenwich UK
Object ID BHC3686


NB: This is not Thomas Nevin's uncle-in-law, Captain Edward Goldsmith; it is Captain Lionel Campbell Goldsmid, now irrevocably associated with the Vernon Mutiny of 1863.

From The Brisbane Courierof May 16, 1864

THE VERNON.The Blackwall ship, Vernon, Captain [Lionel] Goldsmid, embarked 373 Government immigrants at Southampton, for Brisbane, on the 4th December, 1863, and on the 8th of the same month, she put to sea, but anchored at the Mother Bank off Ryde, in the Isle of Wight, owing to contrary winds. She lay there till the 13th of December, during which interval one of the seamen was lost overboard. She resumed her passage on that date, and had light variable winds and fine weather to the Line, which caused that portion of the run to occupy a longer time than usual. On the 2nd February, 1863, at 2 a.m., it was reported that some of the sailors were in the fore-hold broaching cargo, and making free with the spirits. Captain Goldsmid and Mr. Aldridge, the chief officer, went below and ordered them forward, and except that some of the men were very violent and threatening in their language, this attempt at mutiny passed off, and the men returned to their duty. At 10 o'clock on the same morning another attempt was made on the part of the crew to get into the hold, which was resisted by Captain Goldsmid and Mr. Aldridge, and some of the single passengers, who came to the assistance of the officers of the ship. As the sailors were all more or less excited by drink, they became very violent, and threatened to take the life of the chief officer, and some of them drew their sheath knives. Mr. Aldridge at this juncture went aft, and armed himself with a cutlass, with which he wounded two of the ringleaders, causing the mutineers to return to the forecastle. They still continued violent in their conduct, and threatened to fire the ship. From the time of this outbreak on the part of the crew, a guard of the single passengers, armed with cutlasses and pistols, was continually on duty on the poops and in the cabin, and the crew was not allowed on any pretence to go aft of the mainmast. The sailors said that they had been shown where to get the spirits by the second mate, and the present commander of the ship, Captain Aldridge informs us that from the subsequent conduct of that officer there is reason to believe they spoke the truth. The mutiny among the crew, and the incapacity of Captain Goldsmid, induced the surgeon-superintendent, Dr. James Sheridan Hughes, to direct that the vessel should put into Rio Janeiro, at which port she arrived on the 9th February. Here the mutineers, fifteen in number, were brought before a naval court held on board H.M.S. Egmont, and were sentenced to imprisonment in terms varying from three days to nine months. It may be mentioned, however, that although some of the men were sentenced to only three days confinement, yet, under the Brazilian law, they were not liberated until the ninth day, and those condemned to longer terms were in gaol a much longer time than the nominal sentence would seem to infer. The two wounded men and another who had interfered with some of the more violent mutineers on behalf of Mr. Aldridge, were sentenced to three days each, and the others to longer terms, according to their behaviour on board the Vernon. 
As Captain Goldsmid had proved himself wholly unfit to hold the responsible position of master on board an immigrant ship, while on the passage from England to Rio Janeiro, the British Consul at the latter place removed him, and appointed Mr. Aldridge, the then chief officer to the command. The appointment seems to have been a very judicious one, and considering the very trying circumstances in which he was placed at the time, Captain Aldridge appears to have gained great credit for himself, by his conduct. While the Vernon was lying at Rio one of the sailors fell overboard and was drowned; this being the second loss from the crew by an accident of that kind. She sailed from Rio Janeiro on the 25th of February, and had a fair run of about thirty-two days to the meridian of the Cape of Good Hope. There she encountered a very heavy gale, during which she carried away the main topsail yard, an accident which protracted the passage very considerably, as it prevented the ship carrying as much sail as she would otherwise have done. From the Cape until after passing the southern portion of Tasmania, she experienced variable winds, and afterwards light north-westerly winds to Moreton Bay. She was off Cape Moreton on Tuesday the 10th May, but owing to light winds and calms she was carried away to the south by the coast current, and it was not until Thursday the 12th that she arrived in the bay. At 10.45 a.m. on that day, she was boarded by the pilot, and she anchored about three miles from the usual anchorage at sundown on the same night. Next morning she again got under weigh, and at one p.m. she brought up in her berth in the Brisbane Roads. On the following morning she was visited by Dr. Hobbs, who has courteously supplied us with the following information re- specting the passengers :
The Vernon was chartered by Her Majesty's Emigration Commissioners, and brings 373 government immigrants, comprising 152 single men, and 80 single women ; the remainder being married couples and their families. Notwithstanding the very lengthy passage through the detention at Rio Janeiro and other causes, there has been very little illness among the passengers, and the diseases which have been prevalent have been peculiar to children. There were eight deaths and five births.
Appended is a list of the births, giving the names of the mother and date of birth :-December 25th, Mary Barton, of a boy ; February 16th, Nancy Hall, of a girl ; 18th, Jane Cook, of a girl ; March 21th, Jessie Fisher, of a girl ; and 26th, Mary Rooney, of a girl. A list of the deaths is subjoined, giving the name, age, and date of death, and also the cause :-Sarah E. Hare, 1 year, of convulsions, on December 10 ; Robert House, 22, of disease of the heart, on December 23 ; Thomas Ryan; 40, of phthisis, on February 25 ;Ellen McMinimin, 8, of fever, on February 1 ; Harriet Rice, 1, of tabes mesenterica, on February l8 ; Alice M. Sibley, 1, of tabes mesenterica, on February 25 : Agnes Fisher, 8, of convulsions, on April 13 ; and James Quail, infant, of dentition, on May 4.

From The Brisbane Courier (Qld.), Monday 16 May 1864

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES for Captain Lionel Goldsmid
The Mercantile Navy List and Annual Appendage to the Commercial Code of Signals for all nations Ed J H Brown 2000 records Lionel Campbell Goldsmid Class examined OC; Date of Certificate 1854 and Examining Board Bristol. A List of New Patents Feb 5 1847 records Lionel Campbell Goldsmid of Rue Magador Paris - improvements in applying rudders to ships and other vessels. Lionel was a captain in the mercantile marine born Crickhowell South Wales abt 1820. He died July qtr 1913 Paddington London and was first married Oct qtr 1849 Marylebone 1 182. His first wife had already been married- she was Elizabeth Mackenzie who had married a Daniel. The 1851 Census ( Crown copyright, TNA) H0107 1491 589 66 shows Elizabeth at 55 St John's Wood Terrace Marylebone. Elizabeth GOLDSMID Married 29 authoress-fiction b Oxfordshire; Donald Daniel son 8 scholar b Jersey; Ellen daughter 6 b Jersey
The 1871 Census ( Crown copyright, TNA) RG10 2687 22 16 Ashfield-Holly Mill Villa Ross
Herefordshire records:
Campbell Goldsmid M 49 Captain in the Merchant Marine b Crickhowell S Wales; Elizabeth Goldsmid wife 49 authoress: fiction b Oxfordshire, Coombe; Ellen step daughter U 26 Independent b Jersey, St Saviours.
The family had also appeared in the 1861 Census at 3 Sussex Place G Church Lane Hammersmith .
Lionel appeared in the Queensland, Australia Passenger Lists 1848-1912 age 41 b abt 1822 Wales Port of Departure Southampton arrival Brisbane 12 July 1863 on the Ship ' Vernon'.
By 1880 Lionel had re- married following the death of Elizabeth ( Jan qtr 1878 Wandsworth London 1d 495 age 55) to Kate Crawcour nee Hart.

ADDENDA: Newspaper reports of The Vernon reformatory ship

Click on articles for readable version (right click, open in new tab to avoid lightbox view)


Sunday, February 17, 2013

Testimonial to Captain Edward Goldsmith 1849

CAPTAIN EDWARD GOLDSMITH (1804-1869) was the uncle of photographer Thomas J.Nevin's wife, Elizabeth Rachel Day (1847-1914). Her aunt and namesake, Elizabeth Day, sister of her father Captain James Day, married Edward Goldsmith, master mariner of Rotherhithe, at Liverpool in 1829. Captain Goldsmith's illustrious career as Master and Commander of the great merchant ships spanned twenty years and almost without incident (the tragic voyage and wreck of the James 1830 to the Swan River W.A. is one documented exception), from his first command to VDL in 1831 on the Norval to the sale of his favorite barque, the Rattler, in 1852, the year Thomas James Nevin arrived in Hobart as a ten year old child with parents John and Mary Nevin, and siblings Rebecca Jane, Mary Ann and Jack (William John). Captain Goldsmith was a signatory witness at the marriage of Rachel Pocock to his brother-in-law and sometime navigator, Captain James Day, parents of Elizabeth Rachel Nevin nee Day and Mary Sophia Axup nee Day, at St David's Church Hobart on January 6th, 1841.

Signature of Captain Edward Goldsmith 1841, on marriage certificate of James Day


Renewal of Certificate, Second Class, for Captain Edward Goldsmith (born 1804, Chalk, Kent) per the Rattler.
Source: London Gazette, 1848, p. 2912

The "Rattler" was Captain Edward Goldsmith's finest barque. From her maiden voyage from the Downs (England) to Hobart in 1846, he returned every year on this vessel: 1847, 1848, 1849. Every sojourn in Hobart was to unload imported goods and passengers, load local produce, and advertise for more passengers. The Hobart Courier ran advertisements in every week before departure for Port Jackson (Sydney, NSW), informing prospective passengers of the comfortable, even luxurious cabin accommodation.

The Hobart Courier 5 December 1846

For London To Sail in Early January
The new and remarkably fast-sailing barque RATTLER
552 Tons Register, EDWARD GOLDSMITH Commander, having a considerable portion of her cargo engaged will be despatched early in January. This ship has magnificent accommodation for cabin passengers, and the 'tween-decks being exceedingly lofty, she offers an excellent opportunity for a limited number of steerage passengers.
A plan of the cabin may be seen, and rate of freight and passage learnt, by application to Captain Goldsmith on board, or to
THOS. D. CHAPMAN & Co. Macquarie-street, Nov. 17.
A week earlier, a journalist praised the Rattler but seemed eager to inform his readers that newspapers arriving via India provided more recent news:

The Hobart Courier 14 November 1846

The " RATTLER" - This fine barque, new off the stocks, Captain Goldsmith, (formerly of the Wave,) arrived on Wednesday, having made her maiden passage from the Downs in 110 days. She has brought despatches for the Lieutenant-Governor, and a considerable mail with papers to the 24th July. These, however, have lost much of their interest from the later intelligence we are enabled to lay before our readers via India. The Rattler has a general cargo, and brought out as passenger Mr Spode, son of Josiah Spode, Esq ...
These Port Officers' Logs list Goldsmith, Master on the Rattler's arrivals in Hobart:

1846 and 1847

1848 and 1849

Testimonial to Captain Goldsmith
The Hobart Courier 20 January 1849


TESTIMONIAL TO CAPTAIN GOLDSMITH.-A handsome twelve-ounce silver goblet was presented to Captain Goldsmith on Wednesday, last, as a testimonial in acknowledgment of the services he has rendered to floral and horticultural science in Van Diemen's Land, by importing rare and valuable plants from England. The expenses incurred were defrayed by private subscription. The testimonial was presented by W. Carter, Esq., in the name of the subscribers, who observed that he had hoped the task would have been committed to abler hands. Mr. Macdowell, who was engaged in Court, he said, had been first deputed to present the testimonial, as being a private friend of Captain Goldsmith. A token twenty times the value would no doubt have been obtained had the subscribers publicly announced their intention.

-Upon receiving the cup, Capt. Goldsmith remarked that he would retain the token until death ; and, with reference to some observations made by Mr. Carter, intimated it was not improbable he should next year, by settling in Van Diemen's Land with Mrs. Goldsmith, become a fellow-colonist

-The goblet, which was manufactured by Mr. C. Jones, of Liverpool-street, bears the following inscription:-"Presented to Captain Goldsmith, of the ship Rattler, as a slight testimonial for having introduced many rare and valuable plants into Van Diemen's Land. January, 1849." The body has a surrounding circlet of vine leaves in relief. The inscription occupies the place of quarterings in a shield supported the emu and kangaroo in bas relief, surmounting a riband scroll with the Tasmanian motto-" Sic fortis Hobartia crevit." The foot has a richly chased border of fruit and flowers. In the manufacture of this cup, for the first time in this colony, the inside has undergone the process of gilding. As heretofore silver vessels of British manufacture have taken the lead in the market through being so gilt, it is satisfactory to find that the process is practically understood in the colony, and that articles of superior workmanship can be obtained with out importation.
Testimonial to Captain Goldsmith
The Courier Hobart Tasmania 20 January 1849

NB: Captain Goldsmith's goblet dated 1849 and manufactured by Charles Jones is yet to surface, if extant at all. In all likelihood, it passed down to his son by the same name, Edward Goldsmith jnr, married to Sarah Jane Goldsmith nee Rivers at Rochester, July 1870, and remains in the UK, whereabouts as yet unknown.

On receiving the goblet, Captain Goldsmith remarked that he would guard it to his death, which occurred on 2 July, 1869, at Gadshill Cottage, Higham, Kent UK. According to Cecil Fielding, writing in 1882 about Higham, Gadshill Cottage was the villa opposite the Sir John Falstaff Inn on the corner of Telegraph Hill and the Gravesend Road, and home of the highwayman who robbed Falstaff, but it is also the same location as the villa known as Higham Lodge. If Captain Goldsmith returned to Tasmania as a colonist, intimated in his speech, no records of his residence in Hobart extend beyond his occupation of his house at 19 Davey Street in 1854 or lodgings at Broadland House up to the eve of his permanent departure in February 1856. He retired to Gadshill, Higham in Kent, to manage his extensive real estate holdings there (50 cottages, houses, orchards and gardens, including Gadshill House according to his will), soon after selling up his interest in the patent slip and shipyard on the Queen's Domain Hobart to Alexander McGregor. (Ref: National Archives UK C16/781 C546012). At the time of the 1861 UK Census, Captain Edward Goldsmith was listed as master mariner, age 56, retired, resident of Higham Lodge, together with his wife Elizabeth, age 54, and servant Louisa Eatten, age 21, presumably resident there while renovations were made at Gads Hill House at the top of Telegraph Hill. Higham Lodge still stands, located across the laneway from the Falstaff Inn and opposite Charles Dickens' house at 6 Gadshill Place, now a school:

Captain Goldsmith, Elizabeth Goldsmith, 1861 Census, at Higham Lodge.

Higham Lodge, foreground, Falstaff  Inn on right in distance
The sign for Gadshill Place, Dickens' former home and now a school is opposite
Google maps 2013

THE TASMANIAN MOTTO inscribed on Captain Goldsmith's goblet dates from 1804, seen here on the wallpaper in the Hobart Town Hall upper chamber, and on the window at the main staircase landing.

"Sic fortis Hobartia crevit"
Wallpaper with motto of the Hobart City Council Hobart Town Hall
Photo © KLW NFC 2012 ARR

"Sic fortis Hobartia crevit" 1804
Window with motto of the Hobart City Council Hobart Town Hall
Photo © KLW NFC 2012 ARR


Charles JONES (1809-1864)
Notes compiled from various sources

Prior to transportation to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), Charles Jones was a Birmingham-trained silversmith. Jones and his partner Edward Thomason were listed as jewellers and silver workers in The Law Advertiser, Vol.2, No.11 of Thursday, 11th March, 1824: Partnerships Dissolved. Charles Jones had two marks entered at the Birmingham Assay Office, the first as Charles Jones. Silversmith of toy shop, 6th October 1824; and Charles Jones, Silversmith & toy warehouse (Pantechnetheca), 20th July 1828.

Spoon by Charles Jones 1823, Charles Jones mark 1824
© Private Collection

However, Charles Jones was tried and sentenced to transportation for seven years in Worcester in July 1832 (CON31/1/24) arriving in Hobart aboard the Georgiana  as a convict in February 1833.

Conduct record of Charles Jones in Hobart from 1833-38
Archives Office of Tasmania

Although this record does not name the offence for which Charles Jones was transported, the record does read like a litany of abuse from his master, the Hobart watchmaker and merchant David Barclay (1804–84), within weeks of arriving in Hobart. For misdemeanours such as drunkenness, going AWOL, galloping about the streets, assaulting a man in a wine cellar, and possessing jewellery, Charles Jones received punishments that  included 25 to 50 lashes, 3 days confined in a cell, 12 months hard labour in chains confined to the hulk in New Town Bay, 4 hours in the stocks etc etc. He also asserted in Court that Barclay had perjured himself, for which he earned 7 days on bread and water, so Charles Jones' six years indentured to Barclay was no nurturing or benevolent mentorship.

Physical description of Charles Jones, Labourer and Jeweller
Archives Office Tasmania: this record shows he was 23 years old in 1832-3.
CON18/1/8 p342

Charles Jones was one of a number of convict silversmiths assigned to the Hobart watchmaker and merchant David Barclay (1804–84), until granted a Certificate of Freedom in 1839. He then set up business on his own account at 16 Elizabeth-street, Hobart Town, making jewellery as well as plate. In addition to the Champion cup of the same date, held in the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery collection, Jones is recorded to have made commemorative silver medals and cups for the Hobart Town Regatta, the Royal Society of Tasmania and the Society for the Encouragement of Colonial Arts.

National Gallery of Australia
Portrait of Mr David Barclay c.1849
Title Notes: in original gilt frame
Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Painting, oil on canvas
by Thomas BOCK
Sutton Coldfield, England 1790 – Hobart, Tasmania, Australia 1855
Movements: Australia from 1824
75.4 h x 64.2 w cm
Purchased 2009
Accession No: NGA 2009.560

Like Barclay, Jones stamped some of his work with hallmarks, notably the anchor, the mark for Birmingham, and presumably the last guild of which he was a member before leaving Britain. Jones was active in local theatrical circles and continued these interests when he migrated with his wife Mary (nee Thompson) to Sydney in 1858.

Extant examples of his production of silver goblets similar to the one presented to Captain Goldsmith are 'The Champion Cup' and 'The Good Samaritan Cup' held at The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart. A third example from a private collection of the descendants of James Grant was recently displayed at Sotheby's.

DESCRIPTION: The James Grant Cup 1849

The cup is modelled in the form of an urn, the shallow domed lid with applied cast kangaroo finial with leaf surround and bearing the inscription, 'Presented to /JAMES GRANT ESQ/ TULLOCHGORUM/ By the inhabitants of the Fingal District/ For his energy in accomplishing the Road from Avoca to Falmouth V.D.Land /1849', the trumpet shaped bowl has an applied Coat of Arms, a shield with three crowns, supported by two Tasmanian aboriginal figures standing on a bough engraved 'STAND FAST', the bowl rests in an acanthus leaf cup with punched and engraved decoration, the stem comprises four inverted scrolled acanthus leaves to a shallow domed circular base with punched and engraved foliate border, struck with an anchor, lion passant, sovereign's head (Queen Victoria) and CJ in rectangle struck twice 972GMS, 28.5CM HIGH. Source: Peter Hughes (2011) at Sotherby's Auctions
'The Champion Cup' and 'The Good Samaritan Cup' are held in the Colonial Decorative Arts collection of The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart.

The Good Samaritan cup
Charles Jones (1809–64) (Hobart, Tasmania)
metal (silver) 16.5 h x 9.5 w x 9.5 d cm
Presented by the Lotz Family, 2006 P2006.123

DESCRIPTION: The Good Samaritan cup
Extracted from The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery

The Good Samaritan cup was presented in recognition of the benevolence of William Allison (1799–1856). Allison had taken in and cared for a recent immigrant to the colony, Mr OGL Wheatley, who had fallen ill with ‘asthmatic consumption’ shortly after taking up a position as salesman for a Hobart merchant. Although Wheatley died of consumption, despite all of Allison’s care, the members of the Hobart Town Mercantile Assistants Association (1846–55) felt that his selfless kindness should be acknowledged. The Mercantile Assistants Association was established with the twin, and related, aims of promoting early closing hours for shops and providing encouragement for the self-improvement of its members through education. They organised lectures and provided a lending library for members. The Association was a precursor to later more focussed organisations such as mechanics institutes and trade unions.
Description: A stemmed trophy cup with a tall flared bowl supported on an openwork stem of four acanthus leaves to a circular base. The lower part of the bowl has repoussé decoration of four stylised acanthus leaves, above which the surface is smooth and polished. On one side of the bowl there is an applied bas-relief panel depicting a scene with two figures; the other side is engraved. Inscriptions: Engraved: ‘Presented / to MR. W. ALLISON / For his Charity and Kindness to the late / MR. WHEATLEY / by Several Mercantile Assistants / HOBART TOWN / 1850’. Struck with hallmarks for Charles Jones: - Anchor (nominally Birmingham) - Lion passant - Sovereign’s head (Queen Victoria) - ‘CJ’ in a rectangular tablet (the maker’s initials, struck twice). A stemmed trophy cup with a tall flared bowl supported on an openwork stem of four acanthus leaves to a circular base. The lower part of the bowl has repoussé decoration of four stylised acanthus leaves, above which the surface is smooth and polished. On one side of the bowl there is an applied bas-relief panel depicting a scene with two figures; the other side is engraved.
NB: Go the TMAG page to see a 360 degree rotation

The goblet was presented to Captain Goldsmith as a testimonial in acknowledgment of the services he  rendered to floral and horticultural science in Van Diemen's Land, by importing rare and valuable plants from England. An article in  The Hobart Courier 13 December 1848 listed some of those plants, and the method of preservation over long sea voyages.

From The Hobart Courier, 14 December 1848:


IMPORTED PLANTS.- ... The flora of this country has also received a great addition by the importation of some plants for Mr. F. Lipscombe in the Rattler, Captain Goldsmith. The following are in good condition :-Lilium rubrum, schimenes picta, campanula novilis, gloxinia rubra, Rollisonii, speciosa alba, and Pressleyans ; anemone japónica, lilium puctata, torenia concolor, lobelia erinus compacta, myasola (a "forget-me not"), and another new specimen of the same; cuphan mineara, weigella roses, phlox speciosa, cuphea pletycentra, lantana Drummondii and Sellowii, phloz rubra, achimines Hendersonii ; with the following camellias - Queen Victoria,- elegans, tricolor, triumphans, speciosa, Palmer's perfection, and Reevesii. These were ail contained, with others, in one case ; they were well established in pots before packing, which has tended to their preservation. Another case contains lemon thyme, sage, and the Mammoth and Elisabeth strawberries. The same course in this instance had not been pursued; the plants were put into mould at the bottom of the case, and in almost every instance have perished. A quantity of carnations unfortunately experienced the same fate. Importers will therefore do well to impress upon their agents in England the necessity of establishing them in pots before packing. In the exportation of Van Diemen's Land shrubs to the United Kingdom, India, and Mauritius, Mr. Lipscombe always adopts this method, and it is of rare occurrence for any specimen to be lost.
From The Hobart Courier, 14 December 1848

Norton, Charles, 1826-1872
Camellia [ Art work : 1857 ] State Library of Victoria

The craze for camellias meant enormous prices. In 1838, they fetched between 200 to 400 francs in Germany, especially "Palmer's Perfection":

From: The Magazine of Horticulture, Botany, and All Useful Discoveries ..., Volume 4
Charles Mason Hovey - Gardening - 1838

The magnificent garden and view of the River Derwent from John Glover's house, 1832.

State Library NSW
Creator: Glover, John, 1767-1849

Title: Hobart Town, taken from the garden where I lived
Date of Work: 1832

Dahlias, which originated from Central and South America between Mexico and Colombia.
Taken at the Hobart Town Hall
Photo © KLW NFC 2012 ARR

Waterman's Dock Hobart
Half of stereo ca. 1870? unattributed
AOT Ref: NS1013-1-63

Friday, February 8, 2013

Alfred Bock's other apprentice: William Bock


William Rose Bock 1885

Thomas J. Nevin answered an advertisement for an apprentice at Alfred Bock's studio, the City Photographic Establishment, which appeared in The Mercury on 7th July, 1863. He had a studio in New Town which he maintained until the 1880s, but sought a city studio. Thomas Nevin (b.1842) was younger than Alfred Bock (b.1837) by five years, but older than Alfred Bock's other apprentice, his (Alfred's) half-brother William Bock (b.1847) by five years.

"An Apprentice wanted." The Mercury 7th July, 1863.

Alfred Bock's trade advertisement in Walch's Tasmanian Almanac, 1864

William Bock was a teenager when he served more than two and half years as his half-brother's other apprentice in the studio at the City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth-street, Hobart Town.  But by 1864, Alfred Bock and Thomas Nevin were engaged in a dispute with photographer Henry Frith about the origins and rights to the sennotype process, and by 1865, financially bruised by the experience, both Alfred Bock and Henry Firth abruptly departed Tasmania. William Bock eventually departed for New Zealand in 1868. Thomas Nevin acquired Bock's studio, equipment and stock of negatives, and carried on the business in his own name until joined briefly by Robert Smith (1865-1868). The partnership with Smith was dissolved in February 1868 by Hon. W.R. Giblin, Nevin's solicitor. Thomas Nevin continued with commercial photography and procured tenders with help from Giblin for contracts with the Municipal Police Office and New Town Territorial Police to photograph prisoners until the mid 1880s. He ceased professional practice in 1888.

Thomas Nevin's studio stamp on left, modified from Alfred Bock's on right.
Private Collections © KLW NFC 2007.

Alfred and William Bock's Novelties
As Alfred Bock's financial circumstances worsened and the dispute with Frith over the sennotype claims deepened, he advertised a greater variety of formats and novelties. His brother William Bock, who would devote the rest of his life to the production of stamps, may have devised the novelty of autograms, or postage stamps portraits, advertised on 19th October 1863. The carte-de-visite below of postage stamp sized portraits of the Bunster and Young families (unattributed) was most likely the work of William Bock.

Autograms and postage stamp portraits
Mercury 19th October 1963

Above: an unattributed novelty carte-de-visite with postage stamp sized portraits, probably the work of William Bock 1863 while apprenticed to his brother Alfed Bock at the City Photographic Establishment.

Title: Photograph - various portrait of men (unidentified)
Description: 1 photographic print
Format: Photograph
ADRI: NS3210-1-27
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania
Series: Photographs of the Bunster and Young Families, 1850 - 1919 (NS3210)

Another novelty: Alfed Bock's diamond cameo portraits, 
The Mercury, 15 March 1865

The Last Week for Taking Photographs at Alfred Bock's 
Alfred Bock's notice of the sale of the glass house and closure of shop
Hobart Mercury, 14th February 1867

Thomas Nevin's business prospered at the City Photographic Establishment from the late 1860s. By 1872, less than a year after his marriage to Elizabeth Rachel Day and the birth of their first child, daughter May (Mary Florence Elizabeth), Thomas Nevin and his young family resided at 138 Elizabeth Street, Hobart Town, next door to the studio. Between the studio and the residence at 140 Elizabeth Street was the glass house with a residence attached, listed in The Hobart Town Gazette of 1872 with the address 138-and-a-half - 138½ Elizabeth Street. The glass house was built by Alfred Bock and Thomas Nevin in the 1860s, and was eventually sold to photographer Stephen Spurling elder at the end of 1874 while Thomas Nevin concentrated on working in situ with the police. Spurling auctioned it when he was declared bankrupt one year later in November 1875.

Nevin's shop and glass house TO LET,
The Mercury 24 June 1875

Fisty Cuffs in the Glass House

"...being afraid of having the glass in my shop destroyed, I sent my brother for a constable..."

Alfred Bock was vice-president of the Bell Ringing Association. He was confronted in the glass house by another member, Mr Best, on 20th April 1865 over a dispute about a letter detailing a fine imposed for non-attendance. The altercation resulted in a court appearance by both Alfred and William Bock, with Mr Best fined and obliged to pay costs.

From The Mercury 13 May 1865

FRIDAY, 12TH MAY, 1865.
ASSAULT.-Bock v. Best.-This was an information for an assault.
Mr. Sheehy for complainant, and Mr. Allanby for the defendant.

Mr. Sheehy having opened the case called the complainant,Alfred Bock, who deposed: I know complainant. I am with him an officer of an association formed for bell-ringing. I am vice-president, and defendant was secretary. I remember the 20th April last. I saw defendant on that day. I saw him in my own house. About 10 o'clock ia the morning Mr. Best called at my place. My brother told me that Mr. Best wished to see me. I then came up stairs, and Mr. Best, in a very excited tone, asked me if I had sent him a letter which he held in his hand. I said no, but it was sent by the company. He then asked me if I agreed with the contents of the letter. I told him that I did under the circumstances, that I could not do otherwise. He then called me a d-scoundrel, and made a blow at me. I returned the blow. He made several blows at me, and called me a scoundrel again. After some sparring, my wife began to call out, and being afraid of having the glass in my shop destroyed, I sent my brother for a constable. Mr. Best then said that rather than be exposed he would leave the place.

Cross-examined by Mr. Allanby : I am chairman of the Bell-ringing Association. Mr. Best left in consequence of a fine having been inflicted upon him for non-attendance To the best of my knowledge Mr. Best had paid up all monies excepting the 1s. fine. The night he was fined was not a regular ringing night; but Mr. Best had notice of it, and should have been present. The letter produced was written by Mr. Richardson, as secretary to the Bell-ringing Society. The letter was approved by the members of the company, and I certainly agree with it. (The letter was put in and read, accusing Mr. Best of evasion and untruth.) I swear that Mr. Best struck me the first blow. I only said to Mr. Best that I believed what was in the letter, and I say so now.

William Rose Bock, a brother of complainant,corroborated his statement.

Mr. Allanby said the true state of the case was this. Mr. Best had been a member of this Bell-ringing Society, and desiring to resign, had paid up all subscriptions. Afterwards a bell ringing was fixed for a special night, and Mr. Best,being engaged on Volunteer business, could not attend having had no special notice. The company fined him 1s. which he very properly refused to pay. The Society then sent him the very insulting letter which had been read. Mr. Best then very properly went to Mr. Bock, and asked for an explanation, when Mr. Bock said he considered Mr. Best was a liar as stated in the letter, and struck Mr. Best. Mr. Best then returned the blow, and a quarrel took place as stated, Of course Mr. Best could not be sworn, but this was what actually took place, and the Bench, no doubt, would attach due importance to the statement.

Henry Best was called, and said that he was father of defendant. Mr. Bock had come to him asking him to induce his son to apologise. He replied that if he apologised after receiving such an insulting letter he was no son of his. He told Mr. Bock that if such a letter hod been sent to him he would have dressed them all down. Mr. Bock afterwards told bim that his son had not struck him, that he made a blow, but that it did not take effect.

This closed the case, and The Bench declared their opinion that an assault had been committed, and fined defendant 10s. and costs.

WILLIAM BOCK left Tasmania in 1868, returned in 1874 to marry his fiance Rebecca Finlay, and returned to Wellington New Zealand where he thrived as an engraver, lithographic printer, medallist, stamp designer, and illuminator. William Bock is considered the most important and innovative contributor to the development of New Zealand stamp production from 1875 to 1931. He died in 1932.

Bock, William Rose (1847–1932) 1885
Engraver, medallist, illuminator, stamp designer, lithographer, publisher
Image courtesy of Dictionary of New Zealand Biography

From the Hobart Mercury 16 Feb 1874

BOCK—FINLAY.—On the 14th February, at St. David's Cathedral, Hobart Town, by ,the Rev. Canon Bromby,William Rose Bock, of Wellington, New Zealand, second son of the late Mr. Thomas Bock, Tasmania, to Rebecca, daughter of the late Mr. Charles Finlay, Dublin.

Biography: William Rose BOCK
Source: Robin Gwynn. 'Bock, William Rose', from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography.
William Bock (the name Rose was added later) was born in Hobart, Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), on 5 January 1847, the son of Thomas Bock and Mary Ann Cameron, née Spencer, both of whom had been transported to Van Diemen's Land and subsequently pardoned. He was introduced to his craft by his family; his father was a notable engraver, lithographer and daguerrotypist, important for his paintings of Tasmanian Aborigines. William served an apprenticeship of 2½ years in Hobart with his half-brother, Alfred Bock.
Failing to find employment on the Australian mainland, William Bock sailed to New Zealand on the Gothenburg in 1868. He arrived on 6 May in Wellington, where he was based for the rest of his life. After working with James Hughes for over five years, he went back to Tasmania and married his long-standing fiancée, Rebecca Finlay, in Hobart on 14 February 1874.

In 1878 he rejoined Hughes for a year. He next set up his own business as an engraver and lithographic printer, first independently, then in partnership with Henry Elliott (briefly) and later with Alfred Cousins (1883–89). In the 1870s he was responsible for the design and preparation of the dies for the first fiscal and postage stamps to be produced wholly within the colony. In 1885 he designed the medals and certificates for the New Zealand Industrial Exhibition, at which Bock and Cousins were awarded a silver medal for engraving. They also gained first prize in engraving and die-sinking, and in lithographic and ornamental printing.

In the later 1880s William Bock personally supervised the first full book in chromolithography to be printed entirely in New Zealand. The magnificent Art album of New Zealand flora produced by Edward and Sarah Featon was published with 40 colour plates by Bock and Cousins in 1889. However, the strain imposed by the production proved excessive; further planned volumes did not appear, and the partnership with Cousins was dissolved that same year. Bock carried on business alone, initially as Bock and Company, and gradually recovered from debts of over £800.

Bock's artistic flair was demonstrated in his work as medallist, stamp designer and engraver, and illuminator. His medals included several marking the 1901 royal visit to New Zealand and the 1913 HMS New Zealand medal. He contributed four values to the 1898 pictorial stamp issue, widely acclaimed as one of the contemporary world's most attractive. In 1906 he engraved the New Zealand International Exhibition set, the first locally produced large commemorative issue. Bock was the most important and innovative contributor to the development of New Zealand stamp production from 1875 to 1931. His work as illuminator included two jubilee addresses to Queen Victoria and other addresses to Pope Pius IX and to visiting members of the royal family: 'nobody of any note visiting New Zealand left without taking away some memento of Mr Bock's skill'.

A robust, cheerful and optimistic man of medium height, William Bock had a wide range of interests including singing, drama, cricket, the Anglican church and the artillery volunteers. He was vice president of the Master Printers' Association. In later years Bock began a partnership with his son William and at his death was supervising the apprenticeship of his grandson F. R. Bock, who was to continue the Bock engraving tradition in Wellington. Rebecca Bock died on 19 March 1915 and William died on 3 August 1932. They were survived by two sons and two daughters.

Examples of W R Bock's work
Courtesy of Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

Mother of Alfred and William BOCK
Alfred Bock was born on 19 April 1837 to Mary Ann Cameron nee Spencer and Alexander Cameron. William Bock was born  on 5 January 1847 to Mary Ann Cameron nee Spencer and Thomas Bock.

Title: Thomas Bock, from a daguerreotype
Publisher: [Hobart Town : Bock, 1847?]
Description: 1 photograph :
Format: Photograph
ADRI: AUTAS001131821548
Source: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts

Portrait by their father Thomas BOCK (1790-1855)
NGA Catalogue Notes
Mrs Thomas Bock
[Mary Ann Spencer, the artist's wife] c.1845
sheet (sight) 24.0 h x 19.0 w cm
Purchased 2010
Accession No: NGA 2010.328

Alfred Bock
[The artist's step-son] c.1850
Drawing, Watercolour, Technique: watercolour
Support: paper
sheet (sight) 21.0 h x 16.0 w cm
Framed 420 h x 375 w x 27 d mm
Purchased 2010
Accession No: NGA 2010.329


On board the "City of Hobart" 31st January 1872