Friday, December 25, 2009

Christmas 1874: Thomas Nevin's photographic feat

Seasons Greetings 2009 to all our readers, researchers, contributors and extended family.

Visitors to Thomas J. Nevin's weblogs on 2nd January 2010 at midday:

Click on images for large view

Exactly 135 years ago, Thomas Nevin commemorated Christmas with a "PHOTOGRAPHIC FEAT".

On Christmas Day, 25th December 1874, The Mercury newspaper (Tasmania) published a notice which served the dual purpose of praising Nevin's photographic talents and suggesting by way of praise that the "literary curiosity" would make a great gift as a Christmas card:

Thos Nevin photographic feat Mercury 24 Dec 1874

T. J. Nevin's photographic feat, The Mercury 25 December 1874

A PHOTOGRAPHIC FEAT. - Mr T. J. Nevin, of Elizabeth-street, has performed a feat in photography which may be justly regarded as a literary curiosity. He has succeeded in legibly producing the front page of The Mercury of Wednesday, the 23 inst., on a card three inches by two inches. Many of the advertisements could be read without the aid of a glass, and the seven columns admit of a margin all round the card.
Below is a microfiche scan of the front page of The Mercury, Wednesday 23rd December 1874. It is a poor reproduction despite our 21st century technology, yet Thomas Nevin managed to photograph the full broadsheet onto a 3 x 2 inch card without sacrificing margins or legibility.

Front page Mercury Tas 23 Dec 1874

Scan of front page The Mercury 23rd December 1874
Click on image for large view

Thomas Nevin would have delivered to the newspaper office a commercial version of the card which must have been printed verso with his official studio stamp in 1874, the only one of his stamps bearing his full initials - " T. J. Nevin" above the government insignia, since the journalist has used his full initials in the report. He was better known as Thos Nevin. The same studio stamp was printed on the verso of this carte-de-visite vignette of a child (Lucy Batchelor Collection). Nevin or his studio assistants, probably in this instance his wife Elizabeth, hand-painted the green and red motif of Christmas holly, possibly over some object held by the child. The same sprig of holly motif appears on other extant cartes by Nevin, positioned in the hands of a teenage girl in one carte bearing the hand-written inscription verso "Clifford & Nevin, Hobart Town", (Harrisson Collection), and in another, on the lapel of a young sailor (TMAG; SLTas). The carte of this (unknown) toddler would have been included in Nevin's stock of Christmas cards for 1874, on sale at 140 Elizabeth Street along with the miniature reproduction of The Mercury's front page.

Nevin photo of baby in Lucy Batchelor Collection

Nevin photo of baby in Lucy Batchelor Collection

Photograph of baby with Christmas holly
and its verso by T. J. Nevin, Christmas 1874
Scans courtesy of Robyn and Peter Bishop
Copyright © The Lucy Batchelor Collection 2009 Arr.

Tuesday, December 22, 2009

Prisoner George FISHER and Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith 1877

Chief Justice Sir Francis Villeneuve Smith (1819–1909) of the Supreme Court Hobart was administrator of the colony of Tasmania in 1874 and most interested in the uses of judicial and forensic photography which he had witnessed on a visit to Victoria in 1872 (TRE1/1/363 1154). He was photographed by the Hobart City Corporation's commissioned photographer Thomas Nevin in the 1870s in an unusually informal pose, his expression one of vindication while examining a carte-de-visite photograph of a prisoner held in his right hand. Sir Francis Smith's professional interest in the uses of judicial photography to increase surveillance and reduce crime was more than justified when he became the victim of burglary himself at his home by absconder and recidivist George Fisher in 1877.

Prisoner FISHER, George
TMAG Ref: Q15616
Photographer: Thomas J. Nevin 1874

George Fisher had served a sentence of 12 years,for the crime of burglary committed in 1861. He was discharged on 17th April 1874, granted a ticket-of-leave, and re-offended within months. Thomas Nevin's commission to photograph prisoners on arraignment at the Supreme Court from the early 1870s proved most effective when this photograph of Fisher, taken in December 1874 on Fisher's incarceration at the Hobart Gaol Campbell St. for "forging an order to defraud J. E. Risby", was reprinted and re-issued for his re-arrest in 1877 for the burglary at Sir Francis Smith's home. George Fisher had been sentenced to 12 years in December 1874 by the Chief Justice, and sent to Port Arthur, arriving there on Christmas Day. He was transferred back to the Hobart Gaol one year later in December 1875. In August 1877, he managed to abscond, broke into the Chief Justice's home and stole several articles of clothing and other items of personal property. The mugshot being examined by Sir Francis Smith in this reprint by Beattie for the Members of Parliament album (1895) was issued with the arrest warrant for Fisher in 1877, as one of Nevin's several duplicates taken in December 1874 - January 1875.

Left: Prisoner George Fisher December 1874 (NLA Collection)
Right: Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith 1877 (TAHO Collection)
Photographs by Thomas J. Nevin, Supreme Court, Hobart.

Rough Calendar of the Hobart Supreme Court
Habitual criminal George Fisher was sentenced twice - in 1875 and 1877 - at the Supreme Court Hobart by Chief Justice Sir Francis Villeneuve Smith. These records are from the Supreme Court Calendars which were used by photographer Thomas J. Nevin as an indication of which Oyer sessions he need to attend, and which prisoners he needed to photograph around the date of sentencing. A simple tick next to the prisoner's name showed that a bill was issued and paid, and a photograph taken. The "C.J" initials against a name or sentence indicate the judgement passed by the Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith.

Supreme Court Records, TAHO Ref: GD70-1-1
George Fisher, 1st December, 1874, page 35.

Supreme Court Records, TAHO Ref: GD70-1-1
George Fisher, 31st August, 1877, page 59

In reverse order, these official records document George Fisher's criminal career from this sentence in 1877 back to his earliest record of arrival in VDL in 1845.

1877: arrest and arraignment

Warrants issued for the arrest of George Fisher, 3rd August 1877 and the 7th September 1877.

HOBART TOWN. - On the 3rd instant, by E. Maher, Esquire, J.P., for the arrest of George Fisher, charged with having, on the 32st ultimo, at Hobart Town, feloniously and burglariously broken and entered the dwelling-house of Sir Francis Smith and stolen therefrom one blue cloth sacque coat, value £4, two pairs of coloured blankets, value £5, and other articles, amounting in all to the value of £15, the property of Sir Francis Smith.
For description see Crime Report of the 31st ultimo, page 138, Absconded.

George Fisher was arrested on 14th September 1877

George Fisher per Stratheden, TL, arraigned in the Supreme Court, 27th November 1877 for burglary, sentenced to six years.

1875: transferred to the Hobart Gaol from Port Arthur
This photograph was taken by T. J. Nevin at the Hobart Gaol in December 1874 prior to Fisher's departure for the Port Arthur prison.  George Fisher, per Stratheden, TL, 48 years old, was arraigned in the Supreme Court Hobart, 1st December 1874, sentenced to 12 years for forgery and stealing. He was sent to the Port Arthur prison, arriving there three weeks later on Christmas Day, 25th December, 1874. He was sent back to the Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street, on 5th December 1875, spending just 12 months there.

NLA Catalogue. Photograph by T. J. Nevin December 1874
Verso inscription:
George Fisher, per Streathaden [i.e. Stratheden], taken at Port Arthur, 1874
1 photograph on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.3 x 5.6 cm
Part of collection: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Gunson Collection file 203/​7/​54.
Inscription: "227"--On reverse.

George Fisher’s record 1875-1877 from the Port Arthur Conduct Registers
TAHO Records ref: CON94-1-2_00110_S

George Fisher, per Stratheden, was sent to the Port Arthur prison, arriving there on Christmas Day, 25th December, 1874. He was sent back to the Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street, on 5th December 1875.

1874: Ticket of leave and recidivism

Geoge Fisher per Stratheden was enlarged with a TOL on 15th April 1874

George Fisher had served a sentence of 12 years,for the crime of burglary committed in 1861. He was discharged on 17th April 1874, granted a ticket-of-leave, and re-offended within months.

George Fisher, per Stratheden, TL, 48 years old, was arraigned in the Supreme Court Hobart, 1st December 1874, sentenced to 12 years for forgery and stealing. He was sent to the Port Arthur prison, arriving there on Christmas Day, 25 the December, 1874. He was sent back to the Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street, on 5th December 1875, spending just 12 months there.

1871: Letter from Port Arthur
George Fisher appeared to be literate and polite, despite his criminality. On the retirement of the physician  Dr. G.J. Dinham  from Port Arthur, George Fisher wrote him this letter, dated 14th June 1871:

Title: Copy of letter dated from George Fisher prisoner to Dr. G.J. Dinham on his retirement from Port Arthur
Description: 1 photographic print
Format: Photograph
ADRI: NS1264-1-1
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania

1861: Burglary 
In 1861, George Fisher was sentenced to twelve years for burglary which he served at Port Arthur until he was enlarged with a ticket-of-leave in 1874. See the transportation record below for the lengthy list of offences committed from arrival in 1845 until 1874.

1855: Marriage

Name: Boatwright, Elizabeth
Record Type:Marriage Permissions
Ship/free: Cadet
Marriage to:Fisher, George
Permission date:22 Jan 1855
Document ID:
Resource CON52/1/7 Page 126
RGD37/14 : 1855/448

1845: Transportation Records

State Library of Tasmania
FISHER, George
Convict No: 23396
Extra Identifier:
SEE Surname:
SEE Given Names:
Voyage Ship: Stratheden
Voyage No: 261
Arrival Date: 25 Dec 1845
Departure Date: 03 Aug 1845
Departure Port: London
Conduct Record: CON33/1/73, CON94/1/ p47
Muster Roll:
Appropriation List: CON27/1/11
Other Records:
Indent: CON14/1/33
Description List: CON18/1/46

Sir Francis Smith (1819–1909)
Sir Francis Villeneuve Smith administered the colony in 1874-75 and did so again in 1880. The Australian Dictionary of Biography details his birth, education and judicial career.

Reprint by John Watt Beattie 1895
Title: Sir Francis Smith
In: In: Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania No. 66
Publisher: Hobart : J. W. Beattie, [19--]
Description: 1 photograph : sepia toning ; 14 x 10 cm
Format: Photograph
ADRI: AUTAS001136190915
Source: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts
Notes: Exact measurements 140 x 98 mm
Title inscribed in pencil beneath image in unknown hand
In: Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania - no. 66 / photographed by J.W. Beattie

Although this photograph is accredited to J.W. Beattie (1859-1930) by the State Library of Tasmania, it is a reprint made several decades later than the original capture taken in the late 1870s . Here the Tasmanian administrator, Attorney-General and Chief Justice, who was born in 1818, looks like a man in his fifties. He appears to be about 15 years older than his earlier 1860s portrait by Reutlinger, Paris 1860s, (below) which portrays a man in his early forties. Sir Francis Smith would have been an old man of eighty years or so by the time Beattie produced his Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania series in 1895-1900, and clearly this is not a portrait of an eighty year old. It is yet another reprint by Beattie without acknowledgement to the original photographer.

Archives Office of Tasmania
Guide to the Public Records of Tasmania – Section Two –
Governor’s Office Record Group

APPENDIX A Succession of Governors etc,

  • Colonel Thomas F. Gore Browne, 25th Regiment, 11 Dec. 1861-30 Dec. 1868.
    - Lieutenant-Colonel William C. Trevor, 14th Regiment (Administrator),
    30 Dec. 1868-15 Jan. 1869.
  • Charles Du Cane Esq., 15 Jan. 1869-28 Nov. 1874.
    - Sir Francis Smith (Administrator), 30 Nov. 1874-13 Jan. 1875,
  • Frederick A. Weld, Esq., 13 Jan. 1875-5 Apr. 1880.
    - Sir Francis Smith (Administrator), 6 Apr.-21 Oct. 1880.
    - Lieut.-General Sir John Henry Lefroy, R.A., (Administrator), 21 Oct. 1880-Dec.
  • Sir George C. Strahan, R.A., 7 Dec. 1881-28 Oct. 1886.
    - W. R. Giblin, Esq., (Administrator), 29 Oct.-18 Nov. 1886.
    - Sir William L. Dobson (Administrator), 18 Nov. 1886-11 Mar. 1887.
  • Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, 11 Mar. 1887-30 Nov. 1892.
    - Sir William L. Dobson (Administrator), 1 Dec. 1892-8 Aug. 1893.
  • Rt. Hon. J. W. Joseph, Viscount Gormanston, 8 Aug. 1893-14 Aug. 1900.

Sir Francis Smith
Creator(s): Reutlinger, Charles
Date: 186-?
Description: 1 photograph : sepia toning ; 9 x 6 cm.
Notes: Exact measurements 89 x 56 mm, Title inscribed in pencil on verso in unknown hand., Head and shoulders facing front.
Subjects: Smith, Francis Villeneuve - Sir - 1818-1909
Location: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts
ADRI: AUTAS001125883934

Supreme Court Calendars 1870-1882
The "C.J" initials against a sentence indicate the judgement passed by the Chief Justice Sir Francis Smith. The initials "P.O." inidicates Police Office. Dozens of photographs of prisoners taken at these sessions by T.J. Nevin are extant in public collections.

Tuesday, 19th September 1872: George Willis and William Mumford

Supreme Court Calendars, TAHO Ref: GD70-1-1

In 1883, Chief Justice Francis Smith signed the death warrant for James Sutherland. Thomas Nevin's hand-tinted carte-de-visite photograph of prisoner Sutherland was pasted next to the death warrant at the Hobart Gaol when the records were bound in book form.

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2009
Items: Tasmania, Supreme Court Death Warrants
Mitchell Library NSW C203

[Above]: death warrant for the execution of James Sutherland at the Hobart Gaol 1883 signed by Francis Smith. Carte-de-visite with hand tinting of James Sutherland taken by Thomas Nevin and Constable John Nevin in the week before the execution, May 1883.

Signature of Francis Smith on death warrant 1883

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2009
Items: Tasmania, Supreme Court Death Warrants
Mitchell Library NSW C203

[Above]:the seal of the Supreme Court on the death warrant with Francis Smith's signature. The Royal Arms insignia of the Supreme Court also appears encircled in Nevin's Royal Arms government stamp on the verso of a number of his photographs of Tasmanian prisoners (QVMAG, SLNSW), and on the versos of portraits of government officials (TMAG, NZNL, private collections.)

National Library of Australia Collection
NLA Identifier: nla.pic-vn5020355
George Willis, transported to VDL (Tasmania) on the Neptune 2
Photographed by T. J. Nevin for the Municipal Police Office and Hobart Gaol 1872-4.
Photos taken at the National Library of Australia, 7th Feb 2015
Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2015 ARR

Versos: T.J. Nevin [photographer]: Tasmanian prisoners  cdvs
State Library NSW Ref: PXB 274
Photos taken at the State Library NSW 
Copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR

RELATED POSTS at main weblog

Saturday, December 5, 2009

The case of prisoner Leonard HAND

Leonard Hand was "attacked in the night" and died " from natural causes" in custody ...

National Library of Australia Catalogue (2007)
Nevin, Thomas J., 1842-ca. 1922.[ sic -1923]
Leonard Hand, native, taken at Port Arthur, 1874 [picture] 1874.
1 photograph on carte-de-visite mount: albumen; 9.5 x 5.7 cm.
PIC P1029/64 LOC Album 935
Inscription: "211"--On reverse.

Thomas J. Nevin photographed Leonard Hand on or about the 5th August, 1875, on the occasion of Leonard Hand's transfer to H.M. Gaol, Campbell Street Hobart from the largely devolved Port Arthur prison, 60 kms away on the Tasman Peninsula.

The police issued a warrant for Leonard Hand's arrest in their weekly gazette of 9th January, 1866. Hand stayed at large for nearly three months before his arrest, notified on March 30th, 1866. The police described his appearance as "stupid", whatever that may have signified in 1866.

Warrant issued 9th January, 1866 for the arrest of Leonard Hand.
Source: Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police 1866-1870. Gov't Printer (i.e. the weekly police gazette).

DELORAINE.- On the 9th instant by John Hart, Esquire, J. P., for the arrest of Leonard Hand, charged with an unnatural offence.
18 years old, about 5 feet 7 or 8 inches high, fair complexion, light brown hair, stupid appearance; wore moleskin trousers, no braces, plaid vest, Scotch twilled shirt, and light striped summer coat.
And the notice of the arrest:

Leonard Hand's arrest was published on 30th March, 1866.

Vide Crime Report of the 12th January, 1866, page 6.
Leonard Hand has been arrested by Acting Sergeant Coghlan, of the Selby Territorial Police.

Source: Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police 1866-1870. Gov't Printer.

Leonard Hand was convicted in the Supreme Court Launceston in April 1866 and sentenced to 15 years for the offence of "Attempting to commit sodomy." He was 18 years old, a native of Tasmania, i.e. he was born locally and therefore not a transported convict. He was listed as a shoemaker by trade at the Port Arthur prison in 1868.

The Separate Model Prison records at the Port Arthur penitentiary for Leonard Hand are held at the Mitchell Library, SLNSW. In April, May and June 1868, the record below shows that Leonard Hand made shoes seven days a week.

Leonard Hand, earnings from April 1, 1868 as shoe maker
Mitchell Library, SLNSW.
Ref: Convict Department - Separate Prison Reports, 1867-1871 | B 5
Link to record:
Photos © KLW NFC 2009 ARR

Locally-born Leonard Hand was a special case for the chaplain at the Port Arthur penal establishment, Rowland Hayward, and the surgeon Dr John Coverdale who made a strong representation to the House of Assembly's committee on penal discipline on Leonard Hand's behalf in 1873, hoping to remove the prisoner from the isolation of the separate prison. It was evident to Dr Coverdale that rehabilitation was only possible if Leonard Hand (and others) were removed to the general prison community (Weidenhofer 1981:43).

Dr John Coverdale 1870s (in Weindorfer 1981)
His bleeding kit (Powerhouse Museum Collection)

Verdict Natural Causes
Effusion of fluid in the pericardium of sac surrounding the heart.

Leonard Hand was a prisoner at the Hobart Town Gaol, Campbell Street, when his death was recorded on 20th March 1876. The inquest was held at the Royal Exchange Hotel, Campbell St (prop. Ellen Allen). This notice of his inquest was published in the police gazette on April 7th, 1876:

AN inquest was held at Hobart Town, on the 22nd ultimo, before W. Tarleton. Esquire, Coroner, on the body of Leonard Hands [sic], who died in H. M. Gaol on the 20th ultimo, aged 26 years. Verdict: - "Died from natural causes."
This document, consisting of six pages, states that the body of Leonard Hand was held at the General Hospital after being removed from the Hobart Gaol. Included is a lengthy witness account from William Smith alias Boyan (?), the wardsman at the Hobart Gaol Penitentiary Hospital who said that about three days after Leonard Hand came into the Gaol Hospital Ward, he was "attacked in the night"... Read more of the original document - if you can decipher the script - here.

Jurors, witnesses and verdict on the death of Leonard Hand
Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office

Inquest: 6125
Alexander McIntyre
Williams Leed (?)
John Large
Chas Woolley
Robin L. Hood
Henry Marriot
John H. Stevens
Henry E. Baggot
C. E. Knight
Robert Ellish
Charles Mazengard
Mark Cruse
Theo Washington Turnley
Willima Boyan (?)
Leonard Hands [sic] 22nd day of March 1876
Native of Tasmania, Free
Aged about 26 years
Died on Monday the 20th day of March 1876
Narural Causes
Effusion of fluid in the pericardium of sac surrounding the heart.

The Coroner's Report for Leonard Hand
Tasmanian Archives and Heritage Office

T. J. Nevin's mugshot of Leonard Hand

National Library of Australia Catalogue Note
Part of collection: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Gunson Collection file 203/​7/​54.
Title from inscription on reverse.
Inscription: "211"--On reverse.
Also available online :http:/​/​​nla.obj-142913815
Exhibited: "Treasures Gallery", National Library of Australia, 12 December 2012 - 7 July 2013
Exhibited: National Portrait Gallery, Sideshow Alley: Infamy, the macabre and the portrait’, 4th December 2015 – 28th February 2016

The mugshot of Leonard Hand held in the National Library of Australia's collection of 86 "Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874" bears no number on the mount, unlike dozens of these 1870s Tasmanian prisoner mugshots sourced from the QVMAG's holdings, Launceston, donated there as part of government photographer and convictaria collector John Watt Beattie's estate in 1930. At least 200 from the QVMAG collection - including the fifty or so removed in 1983 and returned to the TMAG, Hobart instead of the QVMAG, Launceston - bear numbers on either or both recto and verso, and with the same hand-written transcription "Taken at Port Arthur, 1874". According to the NLA catalogue, this cdv of Leonard Hand bears the number "211" on verso, suggesting it was numbered for exhibition several decades after Nevin's original capture. Many were salvaged from the Sheriff's Office at the Hobart Gaol by John Watt Beattie in the late 1890s and removed from the 1870s Gaol Photo Books. In the name of tourism, Beattie with his assistant Edward Searle reproduced prints and mounted cdv's from Nevin's original glass negatives, including three panels holding forty uncut prints, labelling them "Types of Imperial Convicts" which he offered for sale in his 1916 catalogue and for inclusion in the intercolonial travelling exhibition associated with the fake convict ship, Success. These copyists in Hobart in the 1900s of the original 1870s mugshots taken for daily police surveillance and prison administration had chosen men convicted in the Supreme Courts with lengthy sentences who were -

- transferred from Port Arthur to the Hobart Gaol or depot,
- "received" from a regional court such as Launceston to the Hobart Gaol and courts
- arrested on warrant,
- discharged with various conditions (FS, TOL etc),
- registered as a death in custody.

Just one extant photograph of Leonard Hand is held in public collections, that of the original taken by government contractor Thomas J. Nevin when Leonard Hand was transferred to H.M. Gaol Campbell Street, Hobart during the first week of August 1875. He was not photographed at Port Arthur, nor was he photographed by the Port Arthur prison commandant A. H. Boyd who was not a photographer by any definition of the term, nor involved at any point or at any level with photographing 1870s Tasmanian prisoners. Thomas J. Nevin began the photographing of prisoners when commissioned by Attorney-General W. R. Giblin for police and prison authorities from February 1872 while still a commercial photographer working principally from his studio, The City Photographic Establishment, located one street removed from the Hobart Goal, at 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town. Four months after photographing Leonard Hand at the Hobart Gaol in August 1875, he was appointed to full-time civil service at the Hobart Town Hall for the Hobart City Corporation and the Hobart Municipal Police Office, by which time he had set up equipment on the Hobart Gaol's premises in a room above the women's laundry, assisted by his younger brother Constable W. John (Jack) Nevin. Thomas Nevin also set up a photographic studio within the Office of the Inspector of Police, John Swan at that time, which was housed adjacent to the Mayor's Court at the Hobart Town Hall, above cells located in the basement. His appointment to the civil service as Hall and Office Keeper at the Hobart Town Hall was specifically to take advantage of his experience as a photographer for police, in addition to his background familiarity with military prisoner surveillance.

The Office of the Inspector of Police and Mayor's Court at the Town Hall issued a ticket-of-leave (TOL) to eligible persons on discharge, and notices were routinely published in the gazettes and newspapers to remind TOL recipients that they were to report to the Office on a regular basis. Photographs were taken and added to the records where none had been taken previously, or to update the records of habitual offenders with long criminal careers.

Cdv of Leonard Hand, lower right
NLA Collection folder housing the cdvs in plastic sleeves
Tasmanian prisoner mugshots - or "Port Arthur convicts 1874"
Taken at the NLA January 2015

Photos copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2015

Verso of cdv of Leonard Hand, top left
Tasmanian prisoner mugshots - or "Port Arthur convicts 1874"
Taken at the NLA January 2015
Photos copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2015

Verso of cdv of Leonard Hand, top left
Tasmanian prisoner mugshots - or "Port Arthur convicts 1874"
Taken at the NLA January 2015
Photos copyright © KLW NFC Imprint 2015

The National Library of Australia has catalogued these Tasmanian prisoner photographs with the uniform batch edit "Taken at Port Arthur 1874" for their entire collection of 84 convict images, despite wide discrepancies in dates of photographic capture and criminal history of the convicts. Although this particular copy of Leonard Hand's photograph may not bear Nevin's stamp on verso, his studio stamp was applied to selected photographs of prisoners to register his copyright, renew his contract, and access his commission to signify joint copyright with the City Corporation until his appointment to the civil service, by which time his copyright was owned outright by the HCC. Those photographs (1 for every 100 registered) of prisoners taken before 1876 bear Nevin's stamp on verso with the inclusion of the Supreme Court's Royal Arms insignia (stamped prisoner cdvs are held at the QVMAG and Mitchell Library, SLNSW) which was printed on all documents prepared for the Colonial Government by printer James Barnard.

Full catalogue note:
TITLE Convict Department - Separate Prison Reports, 1867-1871
CREATOR Tasmania. Convict Department
DATE 1867-1871
TYPE OF MATERIAL Textual Records
ISSUE COPY Microfilm : CY 4984, frames 1-105
PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION 1 volume - 0.02 Meters
The Separate Prison was located in the colonial penal establishment at Port Arthur, Tasmania. It opened in 1849 and provided the most severe measures of punishment. Here, constant surveillance, solitary confinement and silence were considered the way to reform. The building was a small modified version of the Pentonville Prison in London. It contained individual cells built around a four-wing radial design that ensured constant surveillance, as well as two dumb cells and a separate chapel.
1 October 1867 - 4 July 1871; Each page is headed with the name of a convict and the ship he arrived on. Beneath this are entries in columns under the titles of Week ending, Employment, Class, Amount of Work performed, Conduct, Industry, Signature of Officer in Charge (A.W., John Cassidy, M. McCarthy, and P.M. Guinness), and earnings letter.
Bequeathed by D.S. Mitchell, 1907
Pages are ruled into columns and rows of a table and an account book.
Some entries note, "Discharge to Hobart Town", implying that the prison is elsewhere in Tasmania.
There are pin holes evident in the pages indicating that there were additional notes and papers.
Volume was bound in July 1933.
David Scott Mitchell bookplate inside front cover.
"D.S. Mitchell" signature at front of original volume.
Titled from handwritten inscription on paper plate affixed to front endpaper of volume, "No.38 / Separate Prison. / Men under strict separate / treatment confined in / the Separate Prison.- / October 1867-"
Embossed on spine, "Convicts / Separate / Prison / Reports / 1867-71"

Photos © KLW NFC 2009 ARR.

Prisoner Leonard HAND: Addenda

PRISON RECORDS (Archives Office Tasmania)

CON37/1/10 Page 5654

Hand, Leonard
Record Type:Convicts
Remarks:Free. Tried Launceston Apr 1866
Index number:29790
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:1398642
Conduct Record
CON37/1/10 Page 5654
CON94/1/1 Page 99

CON94/1/1 Pages 99-100

INQUEST  (Archives Office Tasmania)







"Tea and sugar Tommy" Chapman