Friday, February 20, 2015

Prisoner Alfred MALDEN or MALDON 1874

T. J. NEVIN prisoner identification photographs and duplicates Hobart Gaol 1870s
EXHIBITIONS of Port Arthur convictaria 1900s, 1930s, 1980s

The three identical mugshots featured here are duplicates mounted in carte-de-visite format produced on government contract by commercial photographer Thomas J. Nevin from his single negative, taken at a single sitting with prisoner Alfred Malden or Maldon either on Malden's transfer from the Port Arthur prison, 60 kms south of Hobart to the Hobart House of Corrections, Campbell St. between July 1873 and January 1874, or on his discharge from the Mayor's Court, Hobart Town Hall, in February 1874. Thomas J. Nevin produced and printed many hundreds of these studio cartes-de-visite prisoner identification photographs in oval mounts - with six or so duplicates - for police use in Hobart from the early 1870s.

1871: Maldon's crime: - "shooting with intent to murder"
In a nutshell, recent arrivals from Melbourne, American seamen Maldon and Wilson were operating a pickpocket scam outside a theatre in Launceston when Wilson was caught by police. His fellow countryman Alfred Maldon confronted them, demanding they let Wilson go, then shot one of the constables called Eddie in the face. In the course of the long report of 29 April, 1871, the spelling of the shooter's name changes from Maldon to Malden. The "American-ness" of the crime - shooting at police - was noted as "rare in British communities". Alfred Maldon was tried at the Supreme Court, Launceston on 1st June 1871, sentenced to ten years, and discharged from Hobart Town in the week ending 25 February 1874, less than three years later on condition he leave the colony. His excuse for the shooting was that he was drunk, and because of a previous head injury caused by being struck by lightning, he was incapable of knowing what he was doing, a claim which amounted to a not-guilty plea, according to the trial judge.

28 April:
POLICE COURT. Cornwall Advertiser Fri 28 Apr 1871 Page 2
TUESDAY, APRIL 25. (before T. Mason, Esq., P.M., and J. D, Parker, J. P.
Shooting a Constable: - Alfred Maldon, charged, on the information of Constable Walter Scott, with feloniously attempt to kill and murder one John Eddie, discharging at his face a pistol loaded with powder and shot, and thereby causing a certain bodily injury dangerous to life, to wit,, a gun-shot wound, was remanded for one week.

29 April
Tasmanian (Launceston) Saturday 29 April 1871, page 3
On Monday evening between 7 and 8 o'clock, an outrage was perpetrated in Brisbane-street which is certainly rare in British communities. A constable was shot in cold blood while in the execution of his duty, and by a man to whom he had given no provocation. The particulars, as nearly as we can gather them, are these:- The police have lately received information of the arrival of several very bad characters from the other colonies, and, as a consequence, have kept very strict watch in any fray likely to afford opportunity for the commission of offences against the person. Inspector Ure was thus engaged on Monday night outside the Theatre Royal, and as the people were entering the doors, he saw a fellow put his hand into the pocket of Mr Richard Irvine. To arrest the man was the work of a moment, but no sooner was he in the clutches of the constable that he endeavoured to escape. Ure, however, stuck to his prisoner, and called for assistance, when Constable Scott came up, being soon after followed by Constable Eddie. Ure and Scott secured the man and were marching him off to the station, Constable Eddie following to see that he did not drop anything. A considerable crowd followed, and the party had turned the corner of Wellington-street, and were nearly opposite Wallace's forge, when Wilson resumed his struggles, and a tall man stepped from among the crowd, and demanded the release of the prisoner, stating that " he knew him to be a respectable man." Constable Eddie at once advanced and said "Well, sir, if you know him to be a respectable man, come over to the office and make your report with us." The man drew back presenting a pistol, saying  - " I'll office you," and he immediately fired and bolted. Scott at once let go his man, and Eddie, wounded in the face fell heavily forward. The would-be assassin bolted up Brisbane-street and was captured by Constable Scott, assisted by a man named Collings, between Hatton & Law's shop, at the corner of Charles-street and the soap factory. Inspector Sullivan, who was on duty at the Police Office, meanwhile, hearing the report of a pistol, followed by commotion, sent Constable Carey to the spot, and he, assisted by some civilians, picked up the wounded man and conveyed him to the police station.
Soon afterwards the man captured was brought in, and gave his name as Alfred Maldon. He denied having fired the shot, and cried bitterly. Eddie, however, who was sitting on a chair, and very weak from loss of blood, insisted that he was the man, and using language perhaps more forcible than polite - although fully warranted under the circumstances - declared what he would do for for him but for his weak condition. Maldon being formally changed with the offence, was locked up, and Eddie was removed to his house, Dr. Miller being at once sent for. It was found that he had been shot in the right chin somewhat obliquely, and as many as fifteen shot marks, about the size of quail shot, were found on the surface. The hemorrhage had been very great, a large pool of blood being visible where the man fell. Dr. Miller managed to extract a couple of grains of the shot, but could do no more at that time excepting prescribe the necessary treatment.
On being searched at the station, the man Maldon had several counterfeit coins in his possession, and we understand other evidence will be forthcoming not very favorable to his character. He was a recent arrival from Melbourne, and had been staying at a house on the wharf. The man Wilson is understood to be a deserter from the American whaling barque Lydia, recently as Hobart Town, and he was lately fined 10s at the Police Office for resisting Constable McCormick whilst in the execution of his duty.
Constable Eddie did not pass a very favorable night on Monday, but as the symptoms of his case appeared less serious during the day, he rallied considerably on Tuesday evening, we were told, and, on enquiry on Tuesday evening, we were told he was doing well. Maldon was brought up at the Police Court on Tuesday morning, and remanded at the request of Superintendent Coulter. He was so far convalescent on Thursday as to be up and resting on ?[illegible] A number of the shot fired from the pistol lodged in the clothing of Eddie who, to protect himself against the night air, was well wrapped up under his uniform coat. Malden [or Maldon]refused to say when he arrived here or by what ship; but the police have discovered that he only arrived from Melbourne on Saturday last by the S.S. Tamar. He and Wilson, the pick-pocket he attempted to rescue, pretend that they are not acquainted and don't know a thing of each other. All that can at present be gathered of the past history of Malden [or Maldon] is that some years ago he was a seaman on board the brig Susan trading at this port.
The pistol was found lying in the middle of the street soon after the occurrence. It is a common single-barrelled pocket pistol with spring trigger, and has the wooden part of the stock nearly severed from the metal apparently by the force with which it had been thrown away. It must have been well charged to have inflicted such a wound, or to have made the report heard by Sub-Inspector Sullivan.
Source: Tasmanian (Launceston) Saturday 29 April 1871, page 3

3 June:
Mercury (Hobart, Tas) Saturday 3 June 1871, page 2

Maldon sentenced for shooting with intent
Mercury (Hobart, Tas) Saturday 3 June 1871, page 2

CRIMINAL SITTINGS.SHOOTING WITH INTENT. Alfred Maldon was charged with firing a pistol at Constable John Eddie, on the 24th of April, with intent to kill and murder him ; in a second count the prisoner was charged with shooting with intent to do him grievous bodily harm.
The prisoner, who was not defended by counsel, said, " I did fire the pistol ; but I had no intention to murder him, or do the constable any harm ; I did it through the effects of drink."
His Honor said that was equivalent to a plea of not guilty.
Evidence was then taken, but the particulars of the case have already appeared in our columns.
Prisoner (in answer to a question from His Honor) : I have nothing to say, your Honor, but that I did not intend to injure anyone. I have been suffering from having been struck by lightning, and since then drink makes me unable to know what I am doing. I had been drinking spirits that day, but I had no malice to anyone. I know no one in Launceston, and never saw the constable before. I always carried that weapon about with me, but not with any intention to injure anyone.
The jury retired for about twenty minutes, and then delivered a verdict of guilty on the second count.
The prisoner was remanded for sentence.
Source: Mercury (Hobart, Tas)  Saturday 3 June 1871, page 2

The NLA cdv's of Alfred Malden

Two mounted cdv duplicates from single sitting with prisoner Alfred Malden/Maldon
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart, July 1873-February 1874
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR

Two mounted cdv duplicates from single sitting with prisoner Alfred Malden/Maldon
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart, July 1873-February 1874
Photo taken at the National Library of Australia, 6 Feb 2015
Photos copyright KLW NFC 2015 ARR

These two duplicates were transcribed verso in the early 1900s with the number "316" forty years after their intended use by police and documented again with the National Library of Australia's catalogue numbers when accessioned by donation in the 1960s (Dr. Neil Gunson from Benevolent Society estrays) and in the 1980s (curator John McPhee from the QVMAG exhibition 1977).

The early 1900s transcriptions show two versions of Malden's name, his ship of arrival in Tasmania as the Tamar (mispelled), the transcriber's use of the generic date "1874", and the generic place of imprisonment as "Port Arthur", all of which was used purely in the name of early 20th century tourism. In many, many instances, this same date and place systematically transcribed across the versos of hundreds of these prisoner cdvs forty years after their original use in police hands do not reflect the facts of the prisoner's criminal history at the time he was photographed. Malden was sent to Port Arthur after processing at the Hobart Gaol, and returned to the Hobart Gaol in 1873 or January 1874 at the latest. His sentence of ten years passed in 1871 was reduced on discharge in 1874 on condition he leave the colony of Tasmania.

The cdv on the right is relatively clean, and bears on verso the prisoner's name spelled "Malden" which was used and published by the Municipal Police Office in the 1870s. The one on the left is damaged due to poor storage and exposure, and bears on verso the spelling "Maldon". These differences could be ascribed to the following:

- the clean one was kept inside a police register, pasted to the criminal's record sheet which was kept in a bound book on a blue-coloured form at the Hobart Gaol, then removed four decades later but kept in a file or box.

- the damaged one was displayed in a rogue's gallery on the walls at the Municipal Police Office, Hobart at the time of Maldon's discharge in 1874, or it was salvaged from the photographer's room at the Hobart Gaol by John Watt Beattie during demolition of the room in 1915, to be displayed, uncased, at his "Port Arthur Museum" located in Hobart, in the name of tourism. It was also displayed at William Radcliffe's convictaria museum called The Old Curiosity Shop, which was located at Port Arthur in the 1930s. The Archives Office of Tasmania recorded the acquisition of a duplicate of Malden's "mounted" photograph with nine other cdvs ca. 1975 from Radcliffe's museum. Those cdvs were mugshots taken by Nevin of prisoners George Willis, James Merchant, George Leathley, Daniel Murphy, Alfred Doran, Ephraim Booth, James Martin, Henry Sweet, William Harrison and Alfred Maldon. William Radcliffe may have salvaged as much as was possible from Beattie's museum prior to Beattie's death in 1930 in order to set up his own convictaria museum for tourists to the ruins of the old Port Arthur prison, naming it with a Dickensian flourish no less.

The Archives Office gives this information:
Agency Number: NG946
Start Date: 01 Jan 1920
End Date: 01 Jan 1970
The Radcliffe family ran a museum at Port Arthur that contained a collection of Tasmanian memorabilia and records. It was known as 'The Old Curiosity Shop'. The 'Radcliffe Collection' was acquired by the National Parks & Wildlife Service in the 1970s. William Radcliffe died in September 1943.
Information Sources: Glover Papers Vol 1 Page 66
The fact that the damaged one is transcribed with spelling of the name "Maldon" indicates two different sources of judicial information used by the same transcriber who wrote on these versos at different times in the 1900s, for example, the Conduct Records for MALDON, written on sentencing in 1871, and the Police Gazette records for MALDEN, written on discharge in 1874.

The source for the name spelled "MALDON" is this prisoner's record of arrival and sentencing in Tasmania, dated 1871. The record shows this information:
Maldon, Alfred
Tried Launceston S.C. 1 June 1871
(10) Ten years imprisonment
Shooting with intent to do grievous bodily harm
P.A. [Port Arthur] H.C. [House of Corrections Hobart] 10/1/74
Gov. inf. 26/1/74 Residue of sentence remitted conditionally on the Rev. Mr. Haywood [sic: Hayward ?] undertaking that Maldon should forthwith leave the colony.

TAHO Records
Name: Maldon, Alfred
Record Type: Convicts
Arrival date: 1 Jan 1871
Remarks: Free. Tried Launceston Jun 1871
Index number:47436
Document ID:
Conduct Record CON37/1/10 Page 5830
Link: Conduct Record for Alfred Maldon

The Tasmanian police gazette published this prisoner's name as MALDEN not Maldon on discharge in 1874. Alfred Malden was a 39 year old "native" of New York, tall at 5 feet 10 inches, hair light brown, with two moles centre of left cheek. He was tried at the Supreme Court Launceston on 1st June 1871 for the offence of "Shooting with intent etc", sentenced to 10 years, and transferred within weeks to the Hobart Gaol where he stayed until transferred south to the Port Arthur prison. His name was included in a list of 109 prisoners who were returned to the Hobart Gaol on the decision of Parliament in July 1873. The photograph by T. J. Nevin taken on Malden's return to the Hobart Gaol was reprinted for court records on his discharge in February 1874. Having arrived free to the colony - "FC" - he was discharged with conditions from Hobart Town on 25 February 1874. The condition was that he leave Tasmania.

Alfred Malden per Tamar, discharged from Hobart Town, week ending 25 February 1874
Source: Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police 1871-1875James Barnard, Government Printer

Version online at the NLA

NLA Catalogue
Title: Alfred Maldon, per Tamar, taken at Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Date: 1874.
Extent: 2 photographs on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.4 x 5.6 cm. on mount 10.4 x 6.4 cm.
Context : Part of Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Series: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Two copies of the same image.
Title devised from inscription on verso.
Inscription: "316 ; Alfred Maldon, per Tamer [i.e. Tamar], taken at Port Arthur, 1874"--In ink on verso.

The TMAG's cdv of Alfred Malden
This duplicate (below) is held at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery. Its almost pristine condition can be attributed to several factors: firstly, the glass negative used for this duplicate was not re-used by police because Alfred Malden committed no further crimes in Tasmania. The condition of his discharge was that he leave Tasmania in February 1874. Secondly, this cdv was pasted to paper, originally to Malden's criminal record sheet and bound in the Hobart Gaol prison book for 1874. The verso shows where the original card was removed from the paper sheet, numbered "316" and subsequently transcribed with the prisoner's name and ship, probably by Beattie and Searle ca. 1915 for exhibition at Beattie's museum in Hobart, inscribing the words "Taken at Port Arthur 1874" as an incentive to tourists to visit the old prison. This duplicate may also have been shipped to Sydney, NSW, in March 1915 along with dozens more for an exhibition held at the Royal Hotel, Sydney to be displayed - reprinted and even offered for sale - as Port Arthur relics, alongside relics and documents associated with the travelling exhibition on board the fake convict hulk, Success. The newspaper reports of the exhibition clearly stated that the exhibitors - and this would have included John Watt Beattie as the Tasmanian contributor - collated original parchment records with duplicates, and also photographed original documents when duplicates were not available. Among the one ton of Port Arthur relics were dozens of original 1870s mugshots taken by T. J. Nevin, still attached to the prisoner's rap sheet; many more were removed for re-photographing in various formats as Beattie prepared for this exhibition. The association of the Port Arthur prison with Marcus Clarke's notes and novel of 1874, For The Term of His Natural Life,with these photographic records for the exhibitors was de rigeur by 1915, hence the historically unfactual wording "Taken at Port Arthur 1874" on the versos.

The inscriptions on all three versos - including the number "316" - were written in the same hand by the same person, perhaps at different times in the early 1900s. The number on the recto of the TMAG copy, however, - "195" - which does not appear on the NLA copies, was written eight decades later, in 1983 when this copy and fifty more original cdvs taken by T. J. Nevin at the Hobart Gaol in the 1870s were removed from the Beattie collection at the QVMAG in Launceston, to be exhibited at the Port Arthur prison heritage site as part of the Port Arthur Conservation Project 1983- 1984. This cdv of Alfred Maldon and another fifty were not returned to the QVMAG after the exhibition. They were deposited instead at the TMAG.

Prisoner Alfred Maldon [Malden]
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart, July 1873-February 1874
TMAG Ref: 15619

Verso: Prisoner Alfred Maldon [Malden]
Photographed by T. J. Nevin, Hobart, July 1873-February 1874
TMAG Ref: 15619

The Radcliffe Museum 1930s
William Radcliffe published a guide to Port Arthur in the 1930s with photographs by John Watt Beattie taken in the early 1900s. The shame of convict heritage, a keenly felt stigma of the times, required concealment of convicts' real names. On page 25, he wrote:
In consideration of relatives who may be living, the actual names have been omitted. If any doubt of the facts is occasioned in any way, the records may be seen on application at my museum at Port Arthur.

Photos copyright © KLW NFC 2007

National Library of Australia
Title: The Port Arthur guide.
Publisher: [Port Arthur [Tas.] : W. Radcliffe, 193-?]
Printer: (Hobart : Cox Kay)
Description: 47 p. : ill., facsims ; 19 cm.
Notes: "From original records at The Old Curiosity Shop, Port Arthur."
Subjects: Penal colonies --Tasmania --History.
Port Arthur (Tas.) --History.
Other Authors: Radcliffe, W. (William)
Cover Title: Port Arthur guide : historical facts
Collect from: Manual Request only from Newspaper Reading Room, Lower Gnd 1
Call Number: mc N 1870 MCL HIST 825

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