Monday, September 27, 2010

Good reading for The Kid 1921: Tasmanian police gazettes

TASMANIAN POLICE GAZETTE name changes
THOMAS NEVIN and William Graves
PRISONER ALIASES

Pictured: Jackie Coogan as the Kid finds something amusing in the Police Gazette ...




Jackie Coogan as Charlie Chaplin's co-star in The Kid (1921) finds something amusing in the Police Gazette.
The Kid Motion Picture © MCMXXI Charles Chaplin
Snapshot from DVD Warner Bros 2009

TASMANIAN POLICE GAZETTES
In 1884, the Colonial Government of Tasmania changed the name of its weekly police gazette to Tasmania Police Gazette for Police Information Only. The cover of each issue prior to 1884 was headed Tasmania Reports of Crime For Police Information (and the alternative - Information for Police) which was published by the government printer James Barnard dating back to its first appearance in 1861 (see Archive Office Tasmania POL709): from this in 1874,



1874: Cover: VOL. XIII Tasmania Reports of Crime for Police Information

- to this in 1884 - Tasmania Police Gazette For Police Information Only.



1884: Cover: VOL XXIII Tasmania Police Gazette for Police Information Only

Between those years, the names of photographer Thomas J. Nevin, his brother Constable John Nevin, and their father John Nevin (snr) appeared several times; Thomas as the photographer of prisoners, his brother Constable John Nevin as an arresting constable and witness at inquests, and their father John Nevin snr as a victim of burglary. No photographer working in Tasmania other than Thomas Nevin was listed as assisting police in arrests in these years (Thomas Nevin was also assistant bailiff to detectives well into the 1880s), but several local photographers were accused or convicted of crimes as serious as larceny (e.g. Joshua Anson and Frank Miller), as unfortunate as bankruptcy (eg. Cherry, Spurling, and Riise), as mysterious as sudden death, probably from photochemicals (e.g. Haldene Cotsworth) and as inconsequential as drunkeness (e.g. Henry Anson). Some listings pertaining to photographers were notices about their disappearance in other jurisdictions but thought to be in Tasmania, and yet other listings related the cunning of impostors pretending to be photographers, usually con artists sought for theft.

The gazettes would have been commonplace in the Nevin family household, a ready source of amusement for the children, and a key source of information of scheduled Supreme Court sittings and Oyer sessions requiring Thomas Nevin's attendance and services in providing identification photographs of prisoners on incarceration and discharge.

In this notice from page 78 of the 21st May 1875 issue of the Tasmanian police gazette, Thomas Nevin is listed assisting police with the arrest of William Graves. See this article, and the possible "Special Photograph" which Thomas Nevin took of a man answering Graves' description. The term "Special Photograph" was used by the NSW police to describe casual photographs taken of offenders prior to their official mugshot, a superb collection of which was published in Peter Doyle's Crooks Like Us (2009). In the same issue (21 May 1875) and on the same page are the names of several other prisoners whom Nevin photographed, and whose photographs are still extant (Elijah ELTON alias John Jones, alias Jack Flash; Samuel or George ROBINSON; and Henry Fitzpatrick - see cdvs below).



Tasmania Reports of Crime for Police 21 May 1875 p. 78.
Arrest of William Graves "... assisted by Thomas Nevin"



Prisoner Elijah ELTON per Emily 1842, aliases John Jones and Flash Jack
Photographed by Thomas Nevin at the Hobart Gaol 24 November 1874
NLA Catalogue: nla.obj-142917611

This prisoner was transported as Elisha NELMES on the Emily 1 in 1842. Prison and police administrators used the name Elijah ELTON up to his death in 1883 on official records, and recorded as well his other aliases John Jones, Thomas Turner, and the moniker Flash Jack.

The current incorrect catalogue notes at the NLA (as at 2013) further compound the error of the identity of the prisoner in this photograph with another alias, that of a different prisoner James Jones whose alias was Brocklehurst, viz:
Title John Jones, per Wm. [William] Jardine 2, taken at Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Date 1874.
Extent 1 photograph on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.4 x 5.6 cm. on mount 10.5 x 6.3 cm.
Context Part of Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874 [picture]
Series Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Biography Also known as James Brocklehurst, see NLA 06/117.
Part of collection: Convict portraits, Port Arthur, 1874.
Gunson Collection file 203/7/54.
Title from inscription on reverse.
Inscription: title and "104"--In ink on reverse.
This misinformation also appears in the National Library of Australia's publication of their Tasmanian "convict portraits" titled Exiled, The Port Arthur Convict Photographs (NLA 2011). It has misled descendants of the successful businessman Henry JONES who established the IXL jam factory in Hobart, to believe that this mugshot shows Henry Jones' father John Jones. The prisoner in this mugshot is not John JONES, clerk, 30 yrs old, who married Emma MATHERSON, 25 yrs old, on 8 September 1853 at Hobart (Archives Office Tasmania NAME_INDEXES:847686), the only plausible ancestor of the IXL founder Henry Jones. This prisoner was Elisha Nelmes, officially recorded by police as Elijah Elton.



TRANSCRIPT
Vide Crime Report of 11th July 1873, page 118, 25th July, 1873, page 122 and 5th September 1873, page 146.
John Jones, alias Flash Jack, is identical with Elijah Elton, vide Crime Report 1st November, 1872, page 179,and 20th November, 1874, page 189, now undergoing sentence in H.M. Gaol, Hobart Town.Warrants have been lodged against him at the gaol by Mr. Superintendent Griffith, of the Richmond Municipal Police, by whom and Sub-Inspector Harvey,of the Glamorgan Municipal Police, he has been identified.
Source: Tasmania Reports of Crime (Police Gazette) 14 May 1875.

The photograph of Elijah ELTON was taken by T. J. Nevin at the Hobart Gaol on November 20th 1874 when John Jones was incarcerated for burglary. In May 1875 it was forwarded to regional police who - as the notice states - correctly identified him from his photograph and issued the further warrants, even while Elijah Elton was still in the gaol serving sentences for previous crimes.

The mugshot of the other "JONES" - James JONES or William JONES, also known as Spider,alias James BROCKLEHURST was also taken at the Hobart Gaol by T. J. Nevin on 3 March 1875 when James Jones was discharged. This duplicate from Nevin's negative is held at the National Library of Australia, incorrectly catalogued from the inscription on verso with the date "Taken at Port Arthur 1874" which was written by archivists in early 20th century for convictaria exhibitions at the QVMAG, Launceston,Tasmania, and the Royal Hotel, Sydney, NSW, in conjunction with the fake convict ship Success.



NLA Ref: PIC P1029/27a
LOC Album 935/nla.obj-142917516 (incorrect information)
James Jones, per Theresa, taken at Port Arthur, 1874 [picture] 1874.
1 photograph on carte-de-visite mount : albumen ; 9.4 x 5.6 cm. on mount 10.5 x 6.3 cm.



Police record for James JONES or William Jones alias Brocklehurst, photographed by T. J. Nevin on the prisoner's discharge 3 March 1875.
Source: Tasmania Reports of Crime (Police Gazette)

Below: mugshots by T. J. Nevin of John Fitzpatrick (NLA) and George Robinson (QVMAG):



Mugshots by T. J. Nevin
Left: John Fitzpatrick (NLA collection)
Right: George Robinson (QVMAG collection)


RELATED POSTS main weblog

Thursday, September 16, 2010

Tasmanian crime statistics 1866-1875

MOVEMENT of PRISONERS Hobart-Port Arthur-Hobart 1871-1875
NEPOTISM and CORRUPTION: W.R. Giblin and A.H. Boyd
PHOTOGRAPHS of  PRISONERS: Thomas J. Nevin 1873



Custom, and Parliament Houses Clifford, photo.
Author/Creator: Clifford, Samuel, 1827-1890.
Publication Information: 1862.
Physical description: 1 stereoscopic pair of photographs : sepia toned ; 7 x 7 cm. each.
In: Abbott album Item 41

How many people in Tasmania over the decade 1866 to 1875 were convicted of a crime, and how many were photographed? These tables from the Journals of the House of Assembly 1875-6 gives the statistics for the Decennial Returns of persons dealt with by the Superior Courts (first table) and a Comparative Table showing the number of offences, apprehensions, convictions and acquittals for the years 1872, 1873, 1874 and 1875.

The crime statistics per capita are excessive, confirming the commonly held belief  that Tasmania was a police state from its inception as a penal colony in 1804 to the final years of the 19th century.

Between 1868 and 1875, a total number of persons convicted in the Superior Courts was one thousand and eighty-eight (1,088). Contracted by the Attorney-General W. R. Giblin in February 1872, commercial photographer Thomas J. Nevin began the systematic photographic documentation of prisoners tried at the Supreme Court Hobart and committed at the adjoining Hobart Gaol, Campbell Street.

Further refining the time span when photography was introduced as a means of police surveillance: from 1871 to 1875, the total number of persons convicted in the Superior Courts totalled three hundred and forty-three (343). The mugshots of those who were photographed by T. J. Nevin in this last group of males - more than 300 - survive in public collections today for TWO principal reasons:

REASON ONE:
Proof that the 109 prisoners, who were sent to the Port Arthur prison after 1871 when the prison was transferred from Imperial funds to the Colonial government, had been sent back to Hobart by mid 1873. Proof was needed in order for the government to proceed with the closure of the Port Arthur site. This proof - in the form of criminal records carrying the identification photograph of the prisoner - was deemed necessary by the Legislative Council and Assembly in the face of the Attorney-General W.R. Giblin's attempt to forestall the closure of the Port Arthur prison on behalf of his brother-in-law Adolarious Humphrey Boyd, the incumbent Commandant there from 1871. Keeping the Port Arthur establishment operational would ensure that Boyd continued to enjoy his high salary, life of ease, power, position and social status. However, by December 1873, Boyd was forced to resign under allegations of nepotism and corruption directed at his brother-in-law, A-G W. R. Giblin in the Parliament. Giblin had been Nevin's family solicitor since 1868, when Nevin dissolved his business partnership with Robert Smith, and it was Thomas J. Nevin whom the Hon. W. R. Giblin approached for the job.

As assurance to the Parliament, one hundred and nine (109) names of convicts (see list below) who were sent to Port Arthur from the Hobart Gaol from the year 1871 at the discretion of the Hobart Gaol Sheriff Thomas Reidy were officially tabled in Parliament on July 15th 1873 as soon as the resolution was passed in the House of Assembly to immediately close the prison at Port Arthur and transfer the prisoners there back to the Hobart Gaol. Thomas Nevin's earlier contract with the Lands and Survey Department dating from 1868 was extended to provide the Parliament with their photographs.

Of those one hundred and nine (109) prisoners originally sent from the Hobart Gaol to Port Arthur after 1871 - the "Port Arthur convicts" as they became known in the mid 20th century - sixty (60) had already been transferred back to the Hobart Gaol by October 1873. On arrival at the Hobart Gaol, they were photographed in standard issue prison clothing by T. J. Nevin on being processed or "received". His photographs of a number of these transferred  prisoners taken in 1873 were duplicated and sent back to the Port Arthur prison administration during the last weeks of A. H. Boyd's incumbency as Commandant.

Most but not all of the prisoners' names on that list, tabled in Parliament on 15th July 1873, tally with the names (and aliases) of the prisoners whose photographs survive in public collections, e.g. the names and "convict portraits" held at the National Library of Australia (84), most of which are the copies and exact duplicates of the same names of prisoner photographs held at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery (72), the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery (56), the Mitchell Library SLNSW (13), and the State Library of Tasmania (10).

In summary, Thomas J. Nevin photographed the one hundred and nine (109) transferees from Port Arthur in 1873, some of whom had already been photographed on committal at the Hobart Gaol from February 1872 after their trial. Once arraigned, they were held in cells specifically designated for them while waiting to be sent to 60kms away to the Port Arthur prison. For many they were being sent back there as recidivists originally transported to Tasmania (VDL) prior to cessation in 1853. Out of the total number - three hundred and fort-three (343) photographed between 1872 and 1875, a few were females. Their "mugshots" apparently have not survived from those years. The remaining photographs, ca. three hundred (300) were copied with numbers used by archivists up to the number 322 at a later date for archival and commercial purposes (e.g. for sale at the exhibition in Sydney in conjunction with convictaria from the prison hulk Success, 1916), but in 1873 duplicates (as distinct from copies) of Nevin's originals were tabled and held in TREASURY, paid for out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund, from which Thomas Nevin received commission as the government contractor. Other duplicates - at least four and usually six printed from every glass negative - were held at the Hobart Gaol, and at the central registry in the Town Hall Municipal Police Office, while further duplicates were circulated to territorial and regional police on the prisoner's discharge on various conditions to work. Copies were also sent back to the prison at Port Arthur at the request of the assistant Colonial Secretary, B. Travers Solly in early January 1874.

REASON TWO
Tourism, pure and simple. The commercial (and amateur) photographer John Watt Beattie was commissioned as government photographer in 1892 to provide tourist memorabilia of Tasmania's penal heritage, especially to intercolonial tourists in the hope they would visit Carnarvon, as the former Port Arthur prison site was renamed. Revamped at considerable cost, it was heavily promoted as Tasmania's premier tourist attraction (nothing's changed, it seems). John Watt Beattie salvaged Thomas J. Nevin's 1870s' glass negatives, original uncut prints and prints in oval mounts of Tasmanian prisoners from a number of sources:

  • the Treasury where Attorney- General W. R. Giblin had tabled and paid for them;
  • the Sheriff's Office at the Hobart Gaol where old criminal records (rap sheets) carrying the pasted photograph remained intact;
  • the old photographer's room at the Hobart Gaol which was due for demolition in 1915;
  • the Municipal Police Office at the Hobart Town Hall where Thomas J. Nevin was Office-keeper of the criminal registers from 1875;
  • and from families, collectors, and auctions.

J. W. Beattie's collections were accessioned at the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery on his death in 1930, and exhibited in Launceston in 1934. These are the sources of the extant prisoner photographs, mistakenly catalogued as "Convict portraits, Port Arthur 1874" in the years 1916, 1958, 1977, 1985 and 1991, when they were extensively copied and circulated to other national museums and libraries. Estrays from a government source were donated to the National Library of Australia in 1964. If Beattie had not salvaged them, these early photographs from the 1870s of Australian prisoners would not have survived as they do today in public collections.



Prisoner SMITH, William per Rodney 3
QVMAG Collection
Photographer: Thomas J. Nevin 1874
Verso stamped with Nevin's Royal Arms government contractor stamp

One obvious question remains: where are the rest of the "mugshots" of all the other persons convicted, apprehended, tried, and acquitted in Tasmania during the Nevin brothers' involvement as police photographers. Constable John Nevin, Thomas Nevin's brother, was his assistant in the Hobart Gaol from the mid 1870s to the mid 1880s. There would have been at least a thousand, including duplicates, in existence by the late 1880s. The 1890s prisoner mugshots have survived, and are held at the Archives Office of Tasmania (See GD128 Photographic record and description of prisoners) , but those from the Nevin brothers' active involvement were largely destroyed because they pictured men with the dreaded and shameful connection to Port Arthur. From historians such as Robson (1983) and Alexander (2010), it is clear that the "stain" of convict heritage was keenly felt by Tasmanians as the 20th century approached: the majority of these same mugshots from the 1870s and 1880s were burnt, destroyed and even smuggled to Melbourne to be auctioned privately. The Lyons government (1923-1928) was principally involved in their destruction.

SUMMARY of STATISTICS
Source: Journals of the House of Assembly and Legislative Council 1875-6:

  • Four (4) persons were executed between 1868 and 1875. Thomas Nevin photographed Job Smith, executed in May 1875. Copies or duplicates of his photograph are held at the National Library of Australia and the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery.
  • Twenty one thousand, eight hundred and fifty six (21, 856) persons were tried in the Superior Courts between 1868 and 1875.
  • One thousand and eighty-eight (1,088) persons were convicted in the Superior Courts between 1868 and 1875.
  • Three hundred and forty-three (343) persons were convicted in the Superior Courts between 1871 and 1875, most of whom were PHOTOGRAPHED by T. J. Nevin from 1872 onwards.

Tas crime stats 1872-1875

Comparative table showing the number of offences etc
Source: Journals of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873-1875 (NLA, Microfilm)



Tasmanian crime statistics 1866-1875
Source: Journals of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873-1875 (NLA, Microfilm)



More detail: Tasmanian crime statistics 1866-1875
Source: Journals of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873-1875 (NLA Microfilm)



The list of 109 prisoners sent to Port Arthur from 1871 and tabled to return by October 1873 to the Hobart Gaol:



The list continued:
109 prisoners sent to Port Arthur from 1871 and tabled to return by October 1873 to the Hobart Gaol:



TRANSCRIPT
Will the Sheriff be good enough to inform me by what principle or rule he is guided in selecting Prisoners to be sent to Port Arthur?
F.M. INNES
10th June, [18]'73
_________________________
The transmission of Prisoners to Port Arthur is not regulated by any Executive rule, but the Sheriff in his discretion selects them from the following classes: -
1st. Men convicted before the Supreme Court.
2nd. Absconders from Gaols or Labour Gangs.
3rd. Men under Magisterial Sentences of 12 months and upwards.
4th. From men of the last class under shorter sentences if required to keep up the strength of the Establishment.
The Hon. F.M. INNES J. FORSTER
11 June, [18]'73.
__________________________
NOMINAL RETURN of all Prisoners sent to PORT ARTHUR since its transfer to the Colonial Government, showing their Ages, dates of Conviction, where Convicted, Crimes, and Sentences.
Names. Age. Date of Conviction Where Convicted. Crimes Sentences
Malden, Alfred
Duncan, Thomas
O'Brien, Michael
Ryan, Thomas
Williams, John
Smith, Samuel or Ketts
Glen, James
Pearce, John
Oakley, John
Willis, John
Appleby, John
Pender, Joseph
Evenden, John
Smith, Henry
Conningsby, Wllm
Conlan, James
Allen, Thomas
Green, William
Gregson, Francis
Gregson, John
Stewart, William
Johnson, George
Thomas, James
Murphy, Michael
Dunn, John
Simpson, James
Jeffrey, Mark
Aylward, Philip
Douglas, Robert or Welsh
Downes, Charles
White, John
Saunders, James
Simpson, Charles
Billington, William
Grant, Patrick
Harper, Thomas
Woodland, James
Wilson, George
Merchant, James
Adams, William
Fox, William
Bull, James
Box, Samuel
Saywood, Robert
Campbell, William alias Job Smith
Bright, William
Jones, John
Stewart, William
Atkinson, George
Power, Thomas
McCullum, Hugh
Colhoun, James
Burns, Michael
Williams, Henry
Gangell, Jacob
Donovan, John
Kilpatrick, James
Mumford, William
Lewis, Henry
Phillips, Richard
Smith, John
Willis, Geo or Metcalfe
Kellow, William
Jones, William alias Jas. Brocklehurst
Byran, Matthew
Wamsley, joseph
Regan, John
Doran, Albert
Finley, John
Robinson, George
Cochrane, Moses
Carr, John
Carey, William
Fielding, Henry
Armstrong, Richard
McKay, Robert
Spencer, William
Williams, John
Smith, John alias Wm Orrin
Larkins, Stephen
Roberts, Henry
Morrison, William
Dean, Thomas
Quinn, James
Adamson, George
Smith, Alexander
Wiseman, Thomas
Simmonds, Edward
Swain, John
Brading, Robert
Blanchfield, Jas. W,
Langton, John
Dowd, Martin
Kilburn, John
Marsden, William
Brown, Henry
Pigott, Richard
Garfitt, Charles
Griffin, Thomas
Smith, John alias Marsh
Norris, John
Newham, William
McDonald, Duncan
Theobald, Christopher
Triffit, Edward
Rowe (or Roe), John
Holdcroft, John
Steventon, Charles
____________
THOS.REIDY
H.M. Gaol, &c., for Males, Hobart, 9th June , 1873
The Assistant Colonial Secretary Secretary
JAMES BARNARD
GOVERNMENT PRINTER, TASMANIA
The Hon. W. R. GIBLIN'S RESPONSE: the 60 prisoners returned to Hobart before July 15, 1873:



TRANSCRIPT
Mr. Gray asked the Honorable the Attorney-General if it is the intention of Government to comply with and carry out the Resolution of this House of 24th June last as to the Port Arthur Establishments.

Mr. Attorney-General replied: - It is. Sixty Prisoners have already been removed to Hobart Town; and it is intended to proceed with their removal as soon as arrangements for the proper custody and control of the Prisoners can be made on the Main Land [i.e. at the Hobart Gaol].



Hon. William Robert Giblin, Tasmanian Attorney-General and Premier
Photo by Thomas J. Nevin 1874.
Verso with T. Nevin stamp
TAHO Collection Ref: NS 1013/1971



The Hon. W. R. Giblin ca. 1880
Tasmanian Attorney-General and Premier
In J. W. Beattie's Album, Members of the Tasmanian Parliament 1900
Photo KLW NFC 2014. TAHO Collection.



Order to table expenses spent on repairs at Port Arthur,
Journals of the House of Assembly July 1873 (NLA, Microfilm)


Sunday, September 5, 2010

The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery holdings

The missing online database
This Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery notice about their photographic collections appeared in November 2006. It is now September 2010, and the promised website with viewable databases of their vast photographic holdings is still not up and running. The TMAG holds a sizable collection of rare works by Thomas J. Nevin (1842-1923).



TMAG notice of website redevelopment 2006 for the images collections.

Current notice (Sept 2010):

ONLINE ACCESS TO THE STATE COLLECTION
The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery is in the process of developing world-class access to our collection information. The TMAG has one of the most diverse collections in Australia, and with this diversity, challenges for digitisation are presented. The TMAG is committed to providing access to this information, and whilst our on-line service is unavailable, requests for assistance can be directed to tmagmail@tmag.tas.gov.au.

The TMAG's collections hold ninety and probably many more uncatalogued photographs by Thomas Nevin, sixty of which are stereographs, called "stereoscopes" in the former catalogue entries. In addition, fifty or so of his Tasmanian convicts' portraits are held there, but with the wrong attribution to A.H. Boyd, a result of the confusion generated by researcher Chris Long, which appeared in the TMAG's publication, Tasmanian Photographers 1840-1940: A Directory (1995:36). Boyd was a prison Commandant at Port Arthur (1871-73) but he was not a photographer, neither amateur nor official. T. J. Nevin was the commercial photographer on government contract who photographed those prisoners known as "Port Arthur convicts", i.e. those who were transported before 1853, when they re-offended in the 1870s and were arrested, sentenced and arraigned at the Supreme Court and incarcerated at the adjoining Hobart Gaol for a month BEFORE they were returned to Port Arthur to serve their sentence, if that was their fate. By late 1873-74, the majority of those sent back to Port Arthur, 109 in all, had been transferred back to the Hobart Town Gaol in Campbell St., where they were photographed on being received if sentenced prior to early 1872 when Thomas J. Nevin began the systematic documentation of their images for the colonial government.

The TMAG's annual report for 2002-2003 gives some idea of the extent of their photographic holdings, including their chartered obligation to give the public access, in this webshot which also shows the misattribution to Boyd of one of Nevin's convict cartes, that of James Glen sentenced to 10 years in the Hobart Supreme Court on July 4, 1871. Nevin photographed James Glen on the prisoner's relocation from the Port Arthur prison to the Hobart Gaol in April 1874.



TMAG Annual Report 2002-2003

T. J. Nevin's "convict" photographs



The A.H. Boyd misattribution appears below this prisoner photograph of James Glenn taken by Thomas J. Nevin at the Hobart Gaol, April 1874 and not at Port Arthur.



James Glen was arrested for stealing plate from Webb's Hotel, notice published in the police gazette of 10 February 1871.



Source of police records: Tasmania Reports of Crime Information for Police, Gov't printer

James Glen held a conditional pardon from Western Australia when he was sentenced to ten years for feloniously receiving.. He was sent to Port Arthur as one of the "Supreme Court men" convicted in 1871, assigned to employers, and returned to the Hobart Gaol as one of the sixty (60) of a total of one hundred and nine (109) men listed in Parliament on July 13th 1873 who had either been relocated back to the Hobart Gaol already before July or were scheduled to return to Hobart by October 1873 through to mid 1874. See the full lists (below) of the 109 sent to Port Arthur since the transfer from Imperial to Colonial government funding, and Attorney-General W. R.  Giblin's response to the question put forward to him about the progress of relocating the prisoners from Port Arthur to Hobart (called the Mainland, as distinct from the Tasman Peninsula, site of the Port Arthur prison) . As Giblin says in reply, (60) sixty had already been relocated back to Hobart by the time of his response in the session of July 13th 1873. James Glen was among them, and was photographed on arrival by Thomas Nevin, as were all these men at their Supreme Court sittings, again on their relocation, termed  being received at  the Hobart Gaol, and again on arrest, arraignment and discharge, termed being enlarged  throughout their criminal careers .

From the JOURNALS of the HOUSE of ASSEMBLY:
11th June 1873 and July 17th 1873
Port Arthur: Returns Relating to the Removal of Prisoners;





June 11th 1873 and July 13th 1873:
The Supreme Court prisoners were photographed at trial between 1871-1873, and photographed again on relocation to the Hobart Gaol May 1873-November 1873. They were NOT photographed at Port Arthur: photographic materials listed as cargo for Port Arthur in August 1873 were privately ordered AFTER the majority of the 109 prisoners had left the site, and could have been used for any number of purposes and at any time stretching into the years before the site finally closed in 1877, if indeed those glass plates listed as cargo on July 30th 1873 actually arrived at Port Arthur.

The "mugshots" of most but not all of the "Supreme Court men" listed in Session 33 of Parliament 1873 have survived (at the QVMAG, NLA, TMAG, Mitchell NSW, and AOT). They were originally held in Treasury, along with Nevin's tender, payment claims and his photograph of the Attorney-General W. R. Giblin, noted in the Mercury 1887 on Giblin's death when the search was mounted for a suitable photograph to copy in oils, and this was it, by Nevin taken of Giblin between 1872-76.



TAKE NOTE: The answer to this motion was resolved on July 13th, 1873, with -
"Mr. Colonial Treasurer may have leave to introduce a Bill to establish a Consolidated Revenue Fund."
- which was tabled in October 1873 and from which Thomas Nevin was paid for his continuing services as photographer at the Hobart Gaol with Special Duties. The payment was listed in the June 1874 Treasury statement of expenditure for the financial year, hence the date "1874" which an early 20th century archivist has written on the versos of many of these prisoner's mugshots.

T. J. Nevin's mugshots at the TMAG
Eighteen (18) prisoner mugshots with the photographer misattribution to A.H. Boyd were exhibited at the National Portrait Gallery Canberra in 2000, including that of James Glenn. The TMAG's collections of 50 or so mugshots are either Nevin's duplicates from his original 1870s negatives, or copies made at the QVMAG in Launceston and sent to the Port Arthur Heritage site for exhibition in 1983. They were then deposited back at the Archives Office in Hobart and included in the TMAG collections when the archives were transferred to the Rosny site. Typical of the collection is this mugshot of James Martin by Nevin, taken on the prisoner's discharge, 24th October 1874,  from the Hobart Goal. 



Read more about James Martin here. 

The misattribution of Nevin's convict photos at the TMAG are due to the error made by Chris Long, reiterated here by Warwick Reeder for exhibition at the NPG Canberra March 2000: Mirror with a Memory.

Thomas Nevin's stereographs and portraits at the TMAG
Seven or so of the stereo salt paper prints were online during 2006. These were catalogued in the images database. However, in the text-only database, another 53 photographs by Thomas Nevin were listed but not digitised.

Three major problems with the TMAG lists have emerged:

(a) Confusion over name: the initial "J" for James appears as a middle initial in Thomas Nevin's name in some entries and not in others, depending on which of the several versions of his studio stamps have been sighted: e.g. T. Nevin; T.J. Nevin, Thos. Nevin, Thomas J. Nevin, and Thomas Nevin, causing confusion with his son's name, Thomas James Nevin, born in 1874. Nevin used the initials "T. J. Nevin" on his Royal Arms studio stamp from at least January 1873.

(b) Wrongful attribution to A. H. Boyd instead of Thomas Nevin of the collection of Tasmanian prisoner photographs held by the TMAG, several of which are identical to those correctly attributed to Thomas Nevin in the major collections of the National Library of Australia, the QVMAG, and the Archives Office of Tasmania.

(c) Items which have been displaced from their series lose their attribution; for example, item no. Q1994.56.4 belongs to a series by Thomas Nevin, and it was online. It is a stereograph of a group at the Rocking Stone, Mt. Wellington, and belongs in the series Q1994.56.1 etc etc which bears "T. Nevin" impressed on front. Because it lacks attribution, it does not appear among the 53 entries in the list attached.

The TMAG list 2006
NB: This list with notes was copied verbatim  - spelling errors etc included - from the TMAG online catalogues in 2006. Information regarding any of these photographs now needs to be cross-checked for errors in this list's descriptions against the same photographs documented with factual research which were posted on this weblog after November 2014 when copies were obtained and put online.

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Q9134 ITEM NAME: Photograph print : MEDIUM: Albumen silver carte de visite, MAKER: T Nevin late A Bock [Artist]; TITLE: 'Melville West Hobart under snow ' DATE: 1868, July DETAILS: Wellington Park exhibition DESCRIPTION : View is looking to Mt Wellington from the southern side of Melville and also shows the Kings Arms near the center of image; St Mary's burial ground near center left of image. A store is shown on the corner of Murray and Melville ?

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Q1994.56.7 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope salt paper print , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Salmon Ponds at Plenty near New Norfolk INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impressed on front: T Nevin/ photo

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Q1994.56.5 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope - oval image, MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; TITLE: 'Ladies and gentleman, seated and standing round stone wall? Same group as in Q994.56.1, Q1994.56.24' DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : recreation, walking INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impressed on front: T.Nevin/ photo.

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Q1994.56.34 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; TITLE: 'Lady Franklin's Museum, KangarooValley' DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Group of people at Lady Franklin's Museum, Kangaroo Valley INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: On back in pencil: Mrs A Pedder / and in different hand Lady Franklin's Museum/ KangarooValley and in different hand again best picture

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Q1994.56.33 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Elizabeth Street showing Nevin & Smith photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth Steet near [Patrick ? Street] INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: None

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Q1994.56.30 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope, DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Hobart from Lime Kiln Hill looking down Harrington Street INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: On back in pencil: a Pedder and stamped Thos Nevin/ Newtown

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Q1994.56.28 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope, MAKER: Thos Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : New Town ? looking to the Domain INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Stamped on back: Thos Nevin/ Newtown

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Q1994.56.24 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Group of people in bush setting, same group as in Q994.56.1, Q1994.56.5 INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impressed on front: T Nevin/ photo

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Q1994.56.22 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; TITLE: 'Two men sitting at fence looking out over a field' DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : post and rail fence, pipe INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impressed on front: T Nevin/ photo

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Q1994.56.21 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope salt paper print , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Scene near New Norfolk ? INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impressed on front: T Nevin/ photo

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Q1994.56.20.1 ITEM NAME: Label: MEDIUM: Paper and printing ink, MAKER: Nevin & Smith [Artist]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : Label from the back of Q1994.56.20 for photographers Nevin & Smith, 140 elizabeth Street, Hobarton INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: On back a pink label: Tasmanian views/ from/ Nevin & Smith,/ Photographers,/ 140, Elizabeth St., Hobarton./ Stereoscopic and Album Portraits/ Views Photographed./ Viiews of Residences, Tombstones copied, Terms —Cheap!

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Q1994.56.20 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope salt paper print , MAKER: Nevin & Smith [Artist]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : Group of people dancing in field. INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: On back a pink label: Tasmanian views/ from/ Nevin & Smith,/ Photographers,/ 140, Elizabeth St., Hobarton./ Stereoscopic and Album Portraits/ Views Photographed./ Viiews of Residences, Tombstones copied, Terms —Cheap!

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Q1994.56.2.1 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope - Arched image, MAKER: T J Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Label from back of stereo view Q1984.56.20 -Scenic view showing waterfall INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Printed on back in oval stamp: T J Nevin/ Photographic Artist/ 140 Elizabeth Street.,/ HobartTown/ Copies may be had at any time

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Q1994.56.2 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope - Arched image, MAKER: T J Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Scenic view showing waterfall INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Printed on back in oval stamp: T J Nevin/ Photographic Artist/ 140 Elizabeth Street.,/ Hobart Town/ Copies may be had at any time

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Q1994.56.17 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : D Chisholm, standing at gate Bathurst ? Brisbane ? Street, Hobart Town, D Chisholm , school master, New Town School, 1872 [refer Q1987.388] INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: None

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Q1994.56.13 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia salt paper stereoscope , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Fern Tree ? INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impress on front: T Nevin/ photo

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Q1994.56.12 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope salt paper print , MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1860s late DESCRIPTION : Hobart from near 140 Elizabeth Street on corner Patrick ? Street. Nevin & Smith photographic Studio in buildings on extreme right [ refer also to Q1994.56.33] INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impress on front: T Nevin/ photo

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Q1994.56.1 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: sepia stereoscope - arched image, MAKER: T Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Group of gentlemen and a lady on board a ship. Capstan wheel in centre of image. Same group as in Q994.56.5, Q1994.56.24 INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Impressed on front : T Nevin/ Photo

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Q1990.25.401 ITEM NAME: Photograph print: MEDIUM: carte de visite, MAKER: Clifford & Nevin [Artist]; DESCRIPTION : Studio portrait of unknown woman standing next to chair INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: In ink on back: Clifford & Nevin/ HobartTown

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Q1990.25.400 ITEM NAME: Photograph print: MEDIUM: carte de visite, MAKER: Clifford & Nevin [Artist]; DESCRIPTION : Studio portrait of unknown woman INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: In ink on back: Clifford & Nevin/ Hobart Town

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Q1987.388 ITEM NAME: Photograph: MEDIUM: carte de visite, MAKER: Thos Nevin [Artist]; TITLE: 'Brisbane Street, Hobart. Shows D Chisholm, schoolmaster at New Town Public School leaning on fence. ' DATE: 1870 s INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: In ink on back: "Bathurst ?/ or Brisbane St ?/ Hobart /1870s My father D Chisholm/ at the gate/ Bathurst St/ Hobart Town"

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Q16826.9 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin [Photographer]; TITLE: 'Tasmanian Views.' DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : No information relative to title of his images. This one, of a house or maybe a school. INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: (On bacK) Tas. Views from Nevin & Smith (Late) Photographers (s crossed out) 140 Elizabeth Street. Steroscopic and Album Portraits Views Photographed. Views of Residences, Tombstones copied, Terms:-Cheap!

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Q16826.7 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'Beacon Light Mount Wellington ' DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : A group of people on Mt.Wellington The party appears to consist of 3/4 women and perhaps 10 malesof assorted ages.

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Q16826.6 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : A Gentleman slouched against a tree. Possibly, Mr Chisolm, the school teacher from New Town

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Q16826.5 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'New Town' DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Cottage in New Town

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Q16826.4 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'A Party at the Rocking Stone, MountWellington' DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : A group of people at the Rocking Stone on Mt.Wellington. Consists of 4 men and three women.The two women sitting on the ground in front of the rock appear to be sisters.

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Q16826.38 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : A Bush Scene. Thick scrub, probably near Hobart.

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Q16826.37 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : A Bush Scene. Thick scrub, probably near Hobart. A river could be in the top of the photo,

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Q16826.36 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: TJ Nevin ? [Photographer]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Mount Wellington Foothills?

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Q16826.35 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: TJ Nevin ? [Photographer]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Mount Wellington

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Q16826.34 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin ? [Photographer]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Ferns. Possibly near Hobart, maybe Mt.Wellington or KangarooValley.

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Q16826.33 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: TJ Nevin [Photographer]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Ferns. Possibly near Hobart, maybe Mt.Wellington.

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Q16826.32 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Shows 3 men astride large rocks on Mt.Wellington.

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Q16826.31 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia coloured stereoscope, MAKER: Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Ferns With Snow. Ferns with snow, possibly at KangarooValley. (LenahValley)

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Q16826.30 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia coloured stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'Ferns KangarooValley.' DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : (LenahValley)

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Q16826.3 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'Domain Hobart' DESCRIPTION : Hobart Domain with two men in the foreground and Government House in the background, the Derwent can be seen on the right.

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Q16826.29 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'A conservatory' DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : Inside a conservatory. Location unknown.

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Q16826.28 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin [Photographer]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : New Town Public School

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Q16826.27 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin [Photographer]; DATE: 1870s DESCRIPTION : New Town Public School

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Q16826.22 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: TJ Nevin [Photographer]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : A River Front Scene. Location is impossible to identify. Maybe the Huon or the Derwent near new Norfolk.

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Q16826.21 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : Appears to be a rural location two timber cottages in the foreground. Others on the right further up the hill which looms over the site. Two people are entertaining a deer. A horned steer or cow is menacingly standing behind them. A dog kennel is further behind them near the fence.

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Q16826.20 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin [Photographer]; DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Mount Wellington - not Mt Wellington - looks like a man made channel

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Q16826.19 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T J Nevin [Artist]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : A waterfront shot. Location is uncertain. Possibly, the Huon. INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: T.J. Nevin Photographic Artist 140 Elizabeth Street Hobart Town. Copies may be had at any time. A. Peddar.

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Q16826.16 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Thomas Nevin ? [Artist]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : New Norfolk , bridge over the Derwent. Bush Hotel can be seen on the left. A gentleman is observing the scene in the right forehand.

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Q16826.15 ITEM NAME: photogrpah: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Thomas Nevin ? [Photographer]; DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : A shot of 2 men inside the entrance of Salt RockCave at Victoria, Huon INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: T.J. Nevin Photogrpahic Artist 140 Elizabeth Street Hobart Town. Copies may be had at any time. On back of Q 16826.14

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Q16826.14 ITEM NAME: photogrpah: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Thomas Nevin [Photographer]; TITLE: 'Salt Rock Cave Victoria Huon' DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : A shot of five men inside the entrance of Salt Rock Cave INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: T.J. Nevin Photographic Artist 140 Elizabeth Street Hobart Town. Copies may be had at any time.

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Q16826.12 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Thomas Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'Landscape, not Tasmanian' DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : Perhaps not even Australian, but Antipodean. (NZ)

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Q16826.11 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: Thomas Nevin [Photographer]; TITLE: 'A Mining Operation' DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : Appears to be a mining operation. The presence of crushed rock/ore. A trolley on tracks. Horse and pulley. Location uncertain, but there is a mountain or something like one shrouded in mist in the background. Perhaps Mt. Wellington. There are three men in the scene. One is partially hidden beside the shed on the right. INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: Thomas Nevin New Town

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Q16826.10 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'A Garden Gathering' DATE: 1870c DESCRIPTION : A gathering in the garden. Note the presence of statues the lion in front of the young girl; and a couple of other rather ''grotesquely'' interesting looking characters. The 3 girls look sullen and the boy troublesome. Two gentlemen appear to be supervising proceedings. No hint of location, there are some buildings in the background. Two watering cans present.

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Q16826.1.2 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: albumen silver print sepia toned stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'School HouseKangaroo Valley' DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : This photo depicts three adults and four children at Kangaroo Valley (Lenah Valley) INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: A Pedder

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Q16826.1.1 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: salted paper print stereoscope, MAKER: T Nevin ? [Artist]; TITLE: 'School House Kangaroo Valley' DATE: 1860s DESCRIPTION : This photo depicts three adults and four children at Kangaroo Valley (Lenah Valley) INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: A Pedder

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Q16826 ITEM NAME: photograph: MAKER: Nevin [Artist]; TITLE: 'Collection of stereoscopic views by various photographers. Numbering to be expanded'

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Q14529 ITEM NAME: photograph: MEDIUM: carte de visite, TITLE: 'Mrs. Morrison.' DATE: 1870C INSCRIPTIONS & MARKS: in ink on back: Mrs Morrison and stamped : T Nevin late A Bock city photographic establishment in oval design encircled in belt

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Elizabeth St. Studio, stereo by T. J. Nevin

Photographer: T. Nevin, Elizabeth St. Hobart Town
TMAG Ref: Q1994.56.33

On board the "City of Hobart" 31st January 1872