Sunday, October 10, 2021

Captains, emigrants and convicts: the summer of 1842-1843 in Hobart, VDL

Captain Edward GOLDSMITH on the Janet Izat
Lt. Charles HEXT on the Cape Packet
PRISONERS on the Emily and Moffatt
George O'BRIEN, spy, on the Sir Charles Napier
Bounty emigrants the JUDD family on the Sir Charles Napier
Thomas NEVIN, Joseph THOMAS and John NEVIN snr at Cygnet, Tasmania

Artist: William Clark (Scottish, 1803–1883)
Title: The barque "Sir Charles Napier", Pladda Island in the distance , 1841–1841

The summer of 1842-1843
The tiny southern port of Hobart, Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) accommodated dozens of shipping vessels of all sizes arriving and departing during the summer of 1842-1843. Those who disembarked at the wharves to catch their first breath and sight of this Antipodean penal colony were from every social class. As future free labour, there were the hundreds of transported prisoners and their guards, the soldiers of the 90th Regiment. Then there were the bounty emigrants, and their wealthier counterparts, the free settlers with their servants. Accompanying their cargo were the traders who maintained the supply chain of imports, the livestock, the machinery, the alcohol, and the luxury goods bought on charter for local merchants and farmers.

Passengers departing that summer included well-heeled officials returning to Britain after service, and less fortunate, those families whose energies and resources were effectively depleted. Producers of high value exports such as whale oil and wool entrusted the safe passage of their cargo to merchant mariners such as Captain Edward Goldsmith (1804-1869) who was back in port in command of the barque Janet Izat [var. Izzat] by late October 1842 and would remain until departure in February 1843. Over two decades in almost every summer from the 1830s to 1852 he had arrived at Sydney NSW and/or Hobart VDL in command of the Wave, the Parrock Hall, the Angelina, the Janet Izzat, and the superior barque commissioned for him by its owner Robert Brooks, the Rattler. Captain Goldsmith would become photographer Thomas J. Nevin's uncle-in-law in 1871 on his marriage to Elizabeth Rachel Day, Captain Goldsmith's niece, daughter of his wife's brother, Captain James Day, who was also his navigator and first mate in the 1830s.

Contracted to the colonial government to provide police identification photographs from 1872, Thomas J. Nevin would later encounter some of these prisoners who disembarked from the Moffatt and the Emily in late November, 1842. They were the recidivists who offended and were sentenced in the Supreme Court and photographed over the course of their criminal careers. One prisoner in particular, Elijah ELTON alias John JONES was photographed by Thomas J. Nevin on arrest at the Hobart Gaol on 20 November 1874. He was transported as Elisha NELMES on the Emily, arriving at Hobart on 29 November 1842. By May 1875 the police had confidently identified "John Jones" as Elijah Elton. Prison and police administrators used the name Elijah Elton on official records, and recorded as well his other aliases, viz. John Jones, Thomas Turner, and the moniker 'Flash Jack'. He was buried in 1883 under the name he was transported: Elisha NELMES.

Flash Jack: prisoner Elijah ELTON or Elisha NELMES, alias John JONES
Photographer: T. J. NEVIN 1874
NLA Catalogue: nla.obj-142917611

Among the 220 bounty emigrants who disembarked at Hobart from the Sir Charles Napier on 29 November 1842 were members of the JUDD family from Barkway, Hertfordshire (UK). Parents Thomas Judd snr and Elizabeth Judd nee Cane [var. Cain] arrived with eight of their children: Elizabeth, Thomas, John, Ann, Rebecca, Susan, Martha and Henry. A remarkable account of the voyage and the tragedy which followed was documented by twenty-year-old Thomas Judd in his diary, from departure in August 1842 to arrival and aftermath, in January 1843. Twenty five years later, Hobart photographer Thomas J. Nevin would hear about this family from one of his sitters, Joseph THOMAS, farmer of Cygnet who married a daughter of the JUDD family, Rebecca Judd, in 1852 only to lose her in childbirth in 1864 (see transcript and cdv below).

SHIPS in PORT at HOBART Nov. 29, 1842 (incomplete list)
The barque Janet Izat, Goldsmith, master
The barque Calcutta, Hawkes, master
The barque Cape Packet, Lamb, master
The schooner, Industry, Haughton, master
The barque Emily, Humble, master
The ship Sydney, Potter, master
The barque Sir Charles Napier, Wright, master
The barque Moffatt, Gilbert, master
The brig Caroline, Coombs, master

Colonial Times (Hobart, Tas. : 1828 - 1857), Tuesday 29 November 1842, page 2

Nov.23.- Arrived the barque Calcutta, Hawkes master, from London 3rd August, with a general cargo. Cabin passengers - Mr. and Mrs. Reid, Mr. Reid, jun., Mrs. Williams, Mr. and Mrs. Russell, Mr. Russell, jun.. Miss Lewis, Miss Patterson, Mr. Barr, Mrs. Smith and two children. Mrs. Butcher and family. Mr. Brown. Mr. Simson, Mrs. Crouch and two sons, and Mr. S. T. Haslett, M.D. Steerage ditto -- Mr. Whitney, Mrs. Savage and child, Andrew Christie, George Cutts, Edward Whitehouse, Samuel Barker, Thos. Savage, and three bounty immigrants - namely, Catherine Cummings, Ellen Dow, and John Cameron.
Nov. 24.-Arrived the barque Cape Packet, Lamb master, from the Cape of Good Hope 15th October, with 78 male prisoners (one died on the passage) ; Surgeon Superintendent, Dr. Kelsall. The guard consists of Lieut. Hext, of the 4th, or King's Own; Ensign Leigh; and 30 rank and file of the 99th regiment.
Nov. 24.-Arrived the schooner Industry, Haughton master, from Port Albert 14th instant, with 12 head of cattle.
Nov. 24 - Arrived the barque Emily, Humble master, from Sheerness the 28th June, with 238 male prisoners; Surgeon Superintendent, Dr. Henderson. Passengers — Major, Mrs., and Miss Victor. The guard consists of Lieutenant Ramsbottom, of the 99th ; Ensign Brace, of the 96th ; 30 rank and file of the 99th regiment; with 4 women, 4 children, and 2 servants - namely, Jane Patterson and Charles Moore.
Nov. 26 - Sailed the ship Sydney, 348 tons, Potter master, for Port Phillip, in ballast.
Nov. 28 - Arrived the Sir Charles Napier, 600 tons, Wright master, from Plymouth the 21st August, with 220 Emigrants-, Dr. Walker, Surgeon Superintendent.
Nov. 28.—Arrived the barque Moffatt, 821 tons, Gilbert master, from Plymouth the 14th August, with male prisoners ; Surgeon Superintendent, Dr. Smith, R. N. Passengers — Lieut. F. Finney, (80th Regiment,) Lady and 4 children ; 38 rank and file 99th Regiment, 4 women, and 5 children.
Nov. 28 —Sailed the brig Caroline, 113 tons, Coombs master, for Sydney, with sundries. Passenger-George Thorne, Esq., (owner) Lady and attendants.
NB: The Port Officers' Reports of Ships' Arrivals with Lists of Passengers (MB2/39) between 8 July 1841 and 7 Dec 1842 are online at the Archives Office of Tasmania
View online:

Captain Goldsmith, master of the "Janet Izat" 1842-43
Captain Edward Goldsmith arrived back in Hobart from London as master of the Janet Izat on 26 October 1842 (Ref: TAHO MB2/39/1/6 P355). He was invited to join a small company of seven to dine with the Franklins at Government House, including Dr. Joseph Milligan, superintendent of the Aboriginal group at Oyster Cove, and the auditor George Boyes, appointed acting Colonial Secretary (2 February 1842–20 April 1843) on John Franklin's recommendation after dismissing the previous Colonial Secretary, John Montagu, who had alleged interference in government by Jane Franklin. The discussions at dinner might well have centred on the Franklins' difficulties with Montagu and other senior officials but of immediate concern to Captain Goldsmith was Sir John Franklin's arrangements with him for the safe return passage of gravely ill Antarctic circumnavigator Captain John Biscoe and family on board the Janet Izat. Captain Biscoe died at sea on the Janet Izat on the return voyage to London departing 15th February 1843. On the topic of polar exploration Sir John Franklin may have foreshadowed in this company at dinner his desire to reprise a commission from the Admiralty to lead a naval expedition to the Arctic, an ambition which cost him his life in June 1847. The Franklins departed Hobart, VDL for Port Phillip, Victoria on board the Flying Fish, later the same year, in November 1843.

The Hobart Regatta
The more immediate concern for John Franklin was the appointment of Captain Goldsmith as umpire of the four oars gigs race at the upcoming Hobart Regatta to be held at Sandy Bay on 1st December, 1842. The event was marked by a protest from Mr. Hefford:
The second was that of gigs pulling four oars ; the first boat to receive fifteen sovereigns, and the second seven sovereigns. Five boats started: the " Cater- pillar," "Centipede," "Chase-all," "Gaxelle," and the "Son of the Thames." At first each seemed to maintain its place, continuing to do so as far as the outward ' buoy, when the " Gaxelle" began to creep away, and continued gradually to gain apace until she arrived at the goal, closely followed by the "Centipede." The pull was, altogether, a heavy one, and, we should say, bespoke rather the energy of muscle than a decision as to the speed of the rival crafts. The winners were- of the first prise, Mr. Bayley, owner of the" Gaxelle," and of the second, Mr. C. Lovett, by the " Centipede ;" these received their prizes, accompanied by the usual honours, at the hands of M. T. Chapman, though not without a protest on the part of Mr. J. Hefford against the bestowal of the second prize, on the ground that the " Centipede" had not properly rounded one of the buoys. The objection was done away with, as well by Mr. Kelly as by Captain Goldsmith, who had been appointed umpire, under the Impression that Mr. Hefford had publicly withdrawn his boat.
Source: LOCAL. (1842, December 2). The Courier (Hobart, Tas. : 1840 - 1859), p. 2.

Lieut. Charles Hext on board the "Cape Packet" 1842
Charles Hext (1815-1855) of the 4th King's Own Regiment arrived at Hobart from Cape Town on 24th November 1842 on board the Cape Packet after narrowly escaping the wreck of the convict ship Waterloo. He sketched the wreck, which was produced as a lithograph by Charles Hutchins with some details of the event below the image. Of the 300 on board, 189 perished. Lt. Hext and 17 members and families of the 90th Regiment survived. Of the convicts who survived, 76 were taken to the prison at Cape Town. The South African Commercial Advertiser for 31 August 1842 and for 3, 7 and 10 September 1842 carried reports of the wreck in a scathing critique of those responsible. For names of the prisoners, soldiers and passengers who perished and those who survived, see this list online (courtesy of Sue Mackay).

Title: Wreck of the Waterloo convict ship, Cape of Good Hope, 28th. August 1842 C. Hutchins, lithographer ; from a sketch by Captn. Hext, 4th The King's Own regiment.
Author/Creator: Hutchins, Charles.
Publication Information: Liverpool (England) : C. Hutchins, [18--]
Physical description: 1 print : lithograph ; sheet 31 x 41 cm.
Format: print image (online)
Notes: Printed lower right below image: C. Hutchins, Lithographer, Liverpool.
Title centred below image.
Printed below title: This vessel was blown on shore at 10 o'clock am and in about two hours 189 souls perished out of 300 The officers all saved Lieutt. Hext who commanded the guard was on shore at the time.
"From a sketch ..." printed centre lower margin.
Image size 222 x 290 mm.
Exhibited: Far Flung Places, March 2003 - August 2003.
Citation: Digitised item from: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office

Captain Charles Staniforth Hext (5 February 1815 – 26 January 1855) was a British military officer and artist.[1] Hext was born to Captain John Hext and Elizabeth Staniforth, on 5 February 1815. His mother was the daughter of Thomas Staniforth, former Lord Mayor of Liverpool, and his father a military captain. He joined the 4th King's Own Regiment in 1835 and was stationed in New South Wales. He arrived at Hobart, Tasmania on 12 November 1836, before being sent to India in 1837. He returned to Hobart on 24 November 1842, after narrowly escaping the wreck of the Waterloo convict ship in Cape Town. He returned to India in 1843 where he remained with his regiment until his death in Attock, Punjab on 26 January 1855 of apoplexy.[2][3]

Charles Hext was also known for his Lithography, which he created during his time in Australia. Some of these were published in 1845 by Charles Hutchins in Liverpool.[4] Hext's work is held in the permanent collection of the National Gallery of Australia;[5] the National Library of Australia;[6] the National Museum of Australia;[7] and the State Library of New South Wales.[8]

Before his departure in early 1843, Charles Hext gained permission to visit Port Arthur (south of Hobart) in December 1842, producing sketches of the penitentiary and Eaglehawk Neck which were published as lithographs in Views in Australia and Tasmania by Charles Hutchins at Liverpool (UK) in 1845. He returned to India where he remained with his regiment until his death from apoplexy (stroke) on 26 January 1855. This sketch (below) by Charles Hext titled "Hobart Town and the Derwent River, Van Dieman's Land" might even depict those ships arriving and departing in the port in the River Derwent listed (above) by the Colonial Times, 29 November 1842.

Charles Staniforth Hext (1816 - 1855) artist and Charles Hutchins lithographer.
"Hobart Town and the Derwent River, Van Dieman's Land" 1845
Place of Creation: Liverpool
Object Type: prints
Medium: lithograph, printed in colour inks, from multiple stones
Dimensions: printed image 15.3 h x 25 w cm sheet 24.4 h x 30.8 w cm
Primary Inscription: no inscriptions.
State: published state Credit Line: Purchased 2017
Provenance: created based on sketch by C. S. Hext (1815-1855), by the lithographer Charles Hutchins, Liverpool, Merseyside, England, 1845 [ownership and location unknown for the period 1845-1975] collection of Clifford Craig (1896-1986), Australia, by 1975 who sold it through Christie's, 'The important collection of books, manuscripts, prints, drawings and paintings relating to the discovery and history of Van Diemen's Land and Tasmania, and with a few items relating to Australasia : the property of Dr. Clifford Craig', Launceston, Tasmania, Australia, October 1975 where it was purchased by Ted Gregg, Australia, 1975 acquired by John McPhee, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, between 1978 and 2007 who sold it to the National Gallery of Australia, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, 2017
Source: National Gallery of Australia

The "Sir Charles Napier" to Hobart 1842
Master: John WRIGHT
Origin: Plymouth departed Sunday, August 21, 1842
Destination: Hobart Town arrived Monday, November 28, 1842

Artist: William Clark (Scottish, 1803–1883)
Title: The barque "Sir Charles Napier", Pladda Island in the distance , 1841–1841
Medium: Oil on Canvas
Size: 60.7 x 90.7 cm. (23.9 x 35.7 in.)

Reports of ships arrivals with lists of passengers
Item Number: MB2/39/1/6
Start Date: 08 Jul 1841
End Date: 07 Dec 1842
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania

The Port Officer's log for the arrival at Hobart of the barque Sir Charles Napier on 28th November 1842 listed the following details:
For Van Diemen's Land:
Cabin Passengers: Dr Walker
Steerage passengers: 220 emigrants
For New South Wales: Passengers: blank blank
From whence: Plymouth
Date sailed: 21st August
State of Health: Good
Master: Wright
Owners: Wright & Co.
Tons: 600
Guns: 1
Port of Registry: London
Build: plantation
Crew: 31
Convicts: blank blank
Cargo: ~ blank
Time when boarded: 9.30 p/h 27
Bearings and distance to the Light-house: N N W 2 miles
Wind: S
Weather: fine
Pilot's name: Lucas
Agent: blank
Remarks: blank

There are at least four extant travellers' accounts of their voyage on the Sir William Napier:
  • Diary of Thomas Judd 4 Aug. 1842 - 2 Jan. 1843 (University Tasmania)
  • Diary of Francis Treloar, Steward, MLSA Adelaide, D 4800(L)
  • Information given to the Board by George O'Brien, NSW State Archives
  • The Maritime Heritage Project ~ San Francisco 1846-1899
George O'Brien was one of the bounty emigrants on board the "Sir Charles Napier" when it arrived at Hobart, VDL, on 28 November 1842 with the Judd family. He acted as a spy, reporting cases of abuse of the Bounty system to the Board:
Many cases of abuse of the Bounty system are evident in these Reports and it seems that many busybody passengers acted as spies! For example George O’Brien was a married bounty immigrant on the Sir Charles Napier. When he was examined by the Board he gave information on over 20 other passengers who had either sailed on false pretences or who had committed immoral acts while on board. It is interesting to note that the government refused to pay 102 of the 239 bounties for that ship.
This is an extract from Evidence of George O’Brien

Extract from Evidence of George O’Brien re voyage of ‘Sir Charles Napier’, 1842
[4/4700 pp.70-71], Reel 2852
NRS 5257, Immigration Board: Reports by Immigration Board on complaints of immigrants about their passage, 1838-87

This is an extract from Evidence of George O’Brien - see Addenda 2 below for a longer list of his salacious observations:
George O’Brien a married man Bounty
Immigrant by “Sir Charles Napier” called in and examined – I am a married man I have a wife and six children I knew a man on board called Flynn, he told me he was a single man, there was a woman on board who had some children with her she passed as Flynn’s wife, but was not so, as I heard from Flynn I heard some conversations on board between Kings Bounty People and the Sailors, which induced me to keep a case of pistols about me I heard four of them, two men named Scully and a man named Guynan and another whose name I do
I do not recall say, that they were tried for the murder of Mr Biddulph, and owing to some contradictory evidence, they were liberated on bail I knew a woman on board named Anne Chambers, she shipped as a single woman but she told me she was married and had a child on board, passing as a child of Pat Cummins and that she was coming out to her husband who was a prisoner of the Crown I knew Mrs Flynn alias Hartford to be coming out to her husband who I heard was a prisoner here. I know a single girl named Jane Bryan, she was delivered of a male child on board I heard her say that she was a married woman and that her husband was a prisoner here I knew Matthew Bryan, who passed as Jane Bryan’s brother I heard Matthew Bryan acknowledge that he was the father of the child of which Jane was delivered on board Mary Flood I do not think was a good girl, she could never be kept away from the Sailors, Isabella Thompson & Rachel Thompson were also incorrect I think Mary Shaw an incorrect Girl She came on board in the Workhouse dress I think Jane Perry an incorrect Girl I knew Catherine Murphy, she was a most barefaced Girl I have seen her lying in a bed the Hospital with Watson 3d mate I have also seen her in the Green House on deck in very improper situations with Watson I knew Hannah Plunkett I have seen a very undue intimacy between Pemberton and her, I have seen them on deck with a Cloak folded about them
I knew Mary Carroll a single girl, I...

Thomas Judd's diary, 4th August 1842 to 2nd January 1843
Bounty emigrant 20 year-old shopman Thomas Judd described in vivid detail in his diary the following events he witnessed on board the Sir Charles Napier: the shenanigans performed by the crew as they crossed the Line (the Equator); the births and the numerous deaths of infants; the illnesses of passengers including himself and the medical treatments; the physical assaults and arguments between the Captain and Mates 1 and 2; the shooting of birds and the harpooning of dolphins; what the Captain's wife ate for breakfast; the heat, the calm, and the dangers of coming too close to the African coast; the rolling, rollicking, sea washing across the decks in the Southern Ocean etc etc. But most distressing of all for him was witnessing the progressive illness of his sister Elizabeth who died within days of arrival at Hobart.

The University of Tasmania holds an extract from the diary of Thomas Judd, brother of Elizabeth, John, Ann, Rebecca, Susan, Martha and Henry. The family departed Gravesend (UK) on 6th August 1842 and arrived at Hobart (Van Diemen's Land - Tasmania) on 28th November 1842:
Thomas Judd's diary 4 Aug. 1842 - 2 Jan. 1843
Diary of Thomas Judd (1822-1915) son of Thomas Judd (1794-1887) and Elizabeth (Cane) on a voyage from England to Tasmania on the "Sir Charles Napier" with his family:
"Father and Mother, Elizabeth, myself, John, Ann, Rebecca, Susan, Martha and Henry (we have left William behind - being deaf and dumb - to receive his education in the asylum)".
The diary consists mainly of the voyage: weather, activities on board, prayer meetings in their cabin. On arrival they took a house in Macquarie Street and looked for jobs. Ann and Elizabeth were offered posts as governesses but Elizabeth died on 30 December, at the age of 22, and was buried in the Scotch burial ground.
University of Tasmania eprints
DONOR: Judd, Thomas, Brownell, Thomas Coke, Propsting, Henry and Barnett, William 2010 , Reference to index of Judd & Brownell families miscellaneous items collected by Nancie Hewitt (nee Brownell) , University of Tasmania Library Special and Rare Materials Collection, Australia.
Read the full typescript of the diary here.

The progression of Elizabeth Judd's illness and her death on 30th December 1842 was recorded by her brother Thomas Judd in these entries:

On November 27th, 1842 he wrote:
Elizabeth is still very ill. Mr. Webber, a few days ago, laid a blister upon the back or her neck which, instead of getting better got worse, but we are in hope it may prevent a fit of illness.
On December 3rd, 1842 he wrote:
Saturday 3rd. Dec., Fine day. Father, myself, Elizabeth and Ann have been on shore this afternoon and are very much gratified, but seem to be at home when having got onto the ship again. Although Elizabeth was gratified and pleased with the land and dined and fed on shore, still she is very ill and her neck gets no better
. On December 7th, 1842 he wrote:
Wednesday 7th. Went to see a Mr. Carter today about a situation in his shop but did not engage but Mrs. C. enquired after Elizabeth and went and engaged her as Governess for her family but she is not able to go at present. I am sorry to say her neck and health is in a very bad state.
From that day until his sister Elizabeth's tragic death and burial, Thomas Judd wrote this distressing account:
Friday 9th [December]. Engaged with Mr. C. today for to go on Tuesday. Ann has engaged and is going on Tuesday also, in a very respectable family, as Companion and Governess to a small family.

Saturday 10th. Take a stroll into the bush. Very much gratified to see things in a state of nature. Found a great variety of the insect tribe - very different to those of England and very beautiful.

Tuesday 13th. Went to my situation today at Wellington House, Liverpool Street. Ann went to her's also. Elizabeth took a walk in the Garden last Friday but has been confined to her bed ever since. She has had a slight attack of rheumatism and is extremely weak. Father and John are not yet engaged. I am glad to say my situation is as comfortable as I can expect at first, but am unsettled at present. Elizabeth still continues to get worse and weak. Mr. Webber has attended her at present but, as he is going to leave with vessel in a day or two, we have another to attend her. Her neck does not heal in the least but discharges more, which weakens her much.

Wednesday 21st. Sir Charles Napier is gone to Bombay, a day or two ago. My dear sister Elizabeth is now in a very poor way of weakness, also her throat and tongue is very sore but we are in hopes she will recover over awhile.

Monday 26th Dec. Yesterday was Christmas Day. It is now the height of our summer and the depth of your winter. Gooseberries and currants &c. are now in season but dearer than in England.

Wednesday 28th. Went home today to see how E. was and found her, as I thought, a little better. She always expresses such a wish, if ever go home to be sure to see her. When I left her she expressed very strong marks of affection towards me but I did not notice it much at the time as I knew she was always very partial towards me.

Thursday 29th. Went home today to tell John I had a situation in view for him. Found E. much more lively and better. She said she could feel her neck healing, which pleased her much but her throat no better. She is not able to get up.

Friday 30th. Went home today to tell John he did not succeed yesterday. I had another in view for him. I counted on seeing E. today as I expected to find her much better, so I told a friend when going along, but when I got to the door I was met by John who said E. was fainting. I went in to see her and was very much grieved in finding her in the state she was. She lay quite still but gave several heavy sighs. I thought I would stand by and speak to her when she recovered. John and Father ran for the Surgeon. I called in our Land-lady for I thought it must be more than a fainting fit. As soon as she came in she discovered she was gone. Our dear sister Elizabeth is no more and we are left to lament her loss in a strange country.
As soon as the Surgeon came he said it was not her complaint that was the cause of her death, but a fit of Apoplexy. You must judge Father and John's surprise on their return and also my disappointment - but I hope what is our loss is her gain. She expired about half past twelve o'clock a.m. I am very sorry to think we had not the opportunity to enquire into the state of her mind but we little thought death was so near but I really have strong hopes for Elizabeth for I believe she was a sincere and pious girl and one that loved good things. She conducted herself with great propriety on board all the voyage, which was remarked by all and greatly respected. She was a great advocate for the prayer meetings which were continued all the voyage. But I must leave her in the hands of her Maker, humbly praying that he will have mercy upon her soul and that it may be a warning of great effect to us.
This affair quite cut poor Mother up but I hope she will be enabled to get through it. It is a great grief to us all, in fact, I never had anything play upon my spirits so much before but hope all things are ordered for the best.

On Monday Jan.2nd. 1843 we buried our dear Sister in the Scotch Burying Ground, to remain there until the latter day when we must all meet again, but her soul is not there. I hope it is far better off than it was here.

As a last token or respect I should like to have a stone monument erected for her so that she will not be forgotten although in a strange land.
This is sufficient to teach us the vanity of setting our minds on earthly things, for it appeared to us as if providence was pleased to set upon us before but, alas! all is vanity, but I hope it will prove for our souls eternal welfare.
Transcribed by D. Little 2nd July 1953

Joseph and Rebecca THOMAS (formerly Judd) 1860s
Joseph Thomas (c.1810-1890) married Rebecca Judd (1827-1864) in Franklin [Tasmania] in 1852. Rebecca Judd was the daughter of Thomas Judd and Elizabeth Cane.
Children: Wilbraham Henry (1853-1934), Elizabeth Alice (1855), Arthur Judd (1858-1926) and Rebecca Judd (1864). Rebecca Thomas née Judd died at Port Cygnet in 1864 aged 36. Joseph Thomas was elected a trustee of the first Port Cygnet Road Trust in 1856. In 1859, he was elected chairman of the Trust. He owned a farm (166 acres) at Agnes Rivulet after 1865. Described as a fruit-grower, he died in Port Cygnet in 1890, aged 80 (death notice Mercury 3 January 1891: "On December 31, at Agnes Rivulet, Port Cygnet, Joseph Thomas, aged 80 years.")

Joseph THOMAS, cdv by T. J. Nevin 1860s

Subject: Joseph THOMAS (1810-1890)
Photographer: Thomas J. NEVIN (1842-1923)
Location: City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart
Date: late 1860s - 1869 - 1870
Format: carte-de-visite, vignetted portrait on plain mount
Condition: good overall, fingerprints
Provenance: The Huon & New Norfolk Historical Photo Album (diannetam67,
Verso: Studio stamp: T. Nevin late A. Bock, identified for sale, DSFB, Hobart Book Fair, Feb 11-13, 2011

Key dates in the life of Joseph THOMAS
1810: ca. birth - exact date and location not known
1850: LAND 20 acres Huon Valley
Link:$init=RD1-1-24P174JPG 1850
1851: CENSUS - farmer, Franklin - two males resident- not yet married, married in 1852
1852: MARRIAGE 1852 11 Feb Hobart Town reg- farmer, marriage to Rebecca Judd , witnesses Martha Smith (formerly JUDD?), sister, and brothers Henry and William JUDD. Ceremony by W. Barnett, Independent Chapel Franklin
1857: CENSUS - Agnes Rivulet - 4 persons - page 2 shows he was not transported. - occupation farmer
Female child under 2 yrs
Male child between 7 and 14 yrs
Male and female between 45 and 60 yrs All Protestant
1853-1864: CHILDREN
Wilbraham Henry THOMAS (1853-1934)
Elizabeth Alice THOMAS (1855)
Arthur Judd THOMAS(1858-1926)
Amelia Rebecca Judd THOMAS (1864 -1864).
1864: DEATH of wife Rebecca (b. Judd 1827) 4 Feb
1889: DEATH of old age, 80 yrs old, 30 December at Port Cygnet
1891: WILL - one page

MARRIAGE to Rebecca JUDD 1851

Thomas, Joseph
Record Type: Marriages
Gender: Male
Age: Adult
Spouse: Judd, Rebecca
Gender: Female
Age: Adult
Date of marriage: 11 Feb 1852
Registered: Hobart
Registration year: 1852
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:843899
Resource: RGD37/1/11 no 627
Archives Office of Tasmania

Rebecca THOMAS nee Judd at Port Cygnet
According to these registrations of births and deaths, Joseph Thomas' wife Rebecca Thomas nee Judd (1827-1864) died of pulmonary consumption at Port Cygnet on 4th February 1864. She was 37 years old. Her brother Henry Judd (1836-1916) registered her death the next day. She had given birth to a daughter a week earlier, naming her Rebecca Judd Thomas. According to one family source, this was her fourth and last child after Wilbraham Henry Thomas (b 1853), Elizabeth Alice Thomas (b. 1855), and Arthur Judd Thomas (b. 1858). The child was christened Amelia Rebecca Judd Thomas but died within weeks of the birth (other sources: see

Thomas, Rebecca Judd
Record Type: Births
Gender: Female
Mother: Judd, Rebecca
Date of birth: 26 Jan 1864
Registered: Port Cygnet
Registration year: 1864
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:1111275
Resource: RGD33/1/42 no 1436

Thomas, Rebecca
Record Type: Deaths
Gender: Female
Age: 37
Date of death: 04 Feb 1864
Registered: Port Cygnet
Registration year: 1864
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:1205429
Resource: RGD35/1/33 no 416

John NEVIN snr at Port Cygnet
John Nevin snr (1808-1887) was born at Grey Abbey, Ireland and served with the Royal Scots 1st Regiment of Foot in the West Indies from 1825 to 1838. He then served at the Canadian Rebellions from 1839 until 1841 when he was invalided out first to the hospital at Chelsea, England, and thence to Ireland. He married Mary Ann Dickson, pursued the vocation of gardener in his wife's brother's business, Alexander Dickson's nurseries at Newtonards, taught school, and contributed to journals with surveyor John Hurst, proprietor of the Freeman newspaper. He arrived at Hobart in July 1852 as a pensioner guard on board the Fairlie with his wife and four children all under 12 years old: Thomas James Nevin, Rebecca Jane Nevin; Mary Ann Nevin; and William John (aka Jack) Nevin.

John Nevin snr was granted ten acres one rood and seventeen perches in 1859 in the shire of Buckingham, near Cradoc and Port Cygnet in the Parish of Bedford on the Huon River. Although he was able to settle his wife and their four children on the grant near Port Cygnet, he settled them instead on land granted to Dr. E.S.P. Bedford situated just above the Lady Franklin Museum at Kangaroo Valley (now Lenah Valley, Hobart). He was employed by the Trustees of the Wesleyan Church to teach school at Kangaroo Valley. He was also granted permission to use the one acre of land there on which to establish orchards and build a house. John Nevin snr resided at Kangaroo Valley until his death in 1887, firstly with his wife Mary Ann Dickson and young family, and four years after her death in 1875, with his second wife Martha Nevin nee Genge and his grandchild Minnie Carr (daughter of his deceased daughter Mary Ann Carr nee Nevin, 1847-1878).

The land grant served John Nevin snr and his family well as a source of fruit and vegetables, a place to cultivate orchards and even make jam for export. In 1870 he exhibited marrows at the Industrial Bazaar at the Hobart Town Hall where eldest son Thomas J. Nevin also exhibited a series of landscape photographs. In 1873 John Nevin snr presented an exhibit of peat to a meeting of the Royal Society of Tasmania, and in 1877, he exported jam on the Southern Cross to the colony of Victoria. The peat may have been extracted from the area where he resided with his family at Kangaroo Valley (near New Town, now Lenah Valley), known originally as Sassafras Gully in the 1840s, a valley rich with the type of flora that grows as ‘wet’ and/or mixed forest in Tasmania. Although his sons Thomas and Jack (William John) showed little propensity for farming, John Nevin snr retained the land grant for nearly twenty years before selling it.

Thomas NEVIN at Port Cygnet
The area was also reputed to be a source of gold. In April 1869, eldest son photographer Thomas J. Nevin, with friends John Thorpe jun, former licensee of the Bush Inn at Port Cygnet, and Duncan Chisholm, school master at Rokeby, Clarence Plains, went prospecting for gold in the district around the old mine at Mt. Mary. They found small quantities and were confident enough of finding more to suggest to the press that a subsidy from local residents would encourage them to continue with further exploration. While at Port Cygnet, Thomas Nevin photographed some of these local identities, including Joseph THOMAS, whose portrait (above) he printed as a vignette.

Five years before John Nevin snr died in 1887, he sold the whole ten acres (10 acres, 1 rood, 17 perches) of his land granted in 1859 at Cygnet to Thomas Genge. The sale was registered on the 26th January 1882 for £10 (ten pounds). Thomas Genge was a successor ( a son or nephew perhaps) of John Nevin's close friend and fellow Wesleyan, William Genge (1808-1881), Chapel keeper, sexton and stonemason who had died aged 73 yrs, on 16th January 1881, one year previously.

DEATH of Joseph THOMAS at Port Cygnet

Thomas, Joseph
Record Type: Deaths
Gender: Male
Age: 80
Date of death: 31 Dec 1890
Registered: Port Cygnet
Registration year: 1890
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:1238017
Resource: RGD35/1/59 no 1079
Archives Office of Tasmania

Joseph Thomas died of old age at Port Cygnet, according to his death registration. His health was most likely compromised daily by the water supply he was drinking which was deemed by the Board of Health to be unfit for human consumption. An epidemic of typhoid in Tasmania claimed the life of photographer Thomas J. Nevin's brother, Constable John Nevin, in 1891 at the Hobart Gaol. The sources and causes of diseases and death in the Agnes River district near Port Cygnet was the topic of a report presented to the Tasmanian Parliament in October 1890:
To the Honourable the President and the Members of the Central Board of Health.
I HAVE the honour to call your attention to the appended papers relating to the condition of the Agnes Rivulet at Port Cygnet. The papers consist of a letter dated 11th October, 1890, from the Secretary of the Local Board of Health, with an extract from the minutes of the meeting of the said Board, containing a resolution that a "petition from the inhabitants pointing out the dangerous state of the Agnes Rivulet be forwarded to the Secretary of the Central Board of Health, and earnestly requesting that steps may be taken at once to have the rivulet cleared out;" and the petition referred to, which sets forth that the inhabitants have during summer to get their supply of water from the rivulet, which at that season becomes quite unfit for domestic purposes by reason "of decayed matter and fallen leaves from willows growing along its banks;" and praying that "prompt and efficient measures" be taken "to have this evil removed."
I was at Port Cygnet from the 17th to the 20th of this current month, and took the opportunity of examining the Agnes Rivulet. The main stream of this rivulet is shown to rise in the high lands to the north-eastward of the township, and, after a course of about seven miles, falls into Port Cygnet, at the town of Lovett. The upper part of its course is through lands reserved under the Mineral Lands Act, and which are not taken up nor settled upon. Thence it runs through lands allotted originally to pensioners, and receives affluents draining similar lands : these allotments are partially settled upon. The lower course of the stream is through alluvial land, and both banks are occupied by farmsteads, cottages, orchards, and gardens.
Along its whole course through settled lands the rivulet banks are planted with willows, whose roots greatly impede its flow, and whose branches hang down into the water. These impediments arrest the logs that are brought down by floods, and, consequently, the banks are continually being overflowed. The leaves falling every year from the willows also add to the evil by increasing the impediments as well as polluting the water. The adjoining lands and roads, and the houses and farmsteads of the neighbourhood have no other outfall for their drainage than the rivulet, and, therefore, every heavy rain carries manure and other impurities into the stream. Furthermore, as the lower course of the rivulet is through rich alluvium, some of the banks are continually falling and greatly discolouring and spoiling the water. The statements contained in the petition as to the condition of the rivulet are therefore quite true.
With respect to the prayer of the petition, it is evident that prompt and efficient measures should be taken to remedy the state of the rivulet. But the only way in which the Central Board can assist in the matter is, if it thinks fit, to bring the case under the notice of the Government. As, however, the case is by no means a singular one, for all over the country there are streams that are similarly impeded and polluted, I would suggest that the River Pollution Act of 1881 should be amended so as to bring such cases within its purview. This might be done by giving Local Authorities (as defined by that Act) powers to cause the clearing out of streams at the expense of the riverain proprietors, and to make by-laws in respect of the impediments created by tree-planting, &c.
I would further suggest that, as the clearing out of this rivulet would only temporarily improve the water supply, as the stream is, as above shown, liable to continual pollution, the inhabitants of the district should form a Water Trust for the purpose of bringing pure water from the upper district where no sources of pollution exist. If desired, I can furnish data. to show that such a scheme is quite within their means.
Hobart, 27th October, 1890.
I have the honour to remain,
Your faithful Servant,
Source: Report No. 169, Parliament of Tasmania

1: Judd family photographs
These photographs of members of the JUDD, BARNETT, PROPSTING and THOMAS families were among 140 or more photographs sold at the Douglas Stewart Fine Books Fair (DSFB), Hobart, 2011 in a pair of albums containing one or more photographs by Thomas J. Nevin, printed verso with his most common studio stamp, "T. Nevin Late A. Bock" to indicate his succession to Alfred Bock's business and studio at The City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town from 1867 until early 1876. According to notes and information supplied by DSFB, the albums included the following:
140 + family portrait photographs in carte-de-visite and cabinet card formats. Identified sitters include William Barnett of Clifton House, New Norfolk, Tasmania, 1864 / Anna Barnett, Clifton House, New Norfolk, 2nd daughter of Thomas & Elizabeth Judd, Franklin, River Huon, 1864; Mr W.H. Thomas, Agnes Rivulet, Port Cygnet (early 1860s), and John Hay of Southport. Photographic studios represented include those of Frith, Nevin (late A. Bock), Spurling, J. Bishop Osborne, Winter, Wherrett, Riise & Barnett, Woolley and Anson Bros ...." etc etc

DSFB Fair, Hobart 2011 Catalogue notes

The two albums were purchased by Dianne Tam who uploaded several photographs with minimal information to, which she originally titled -
In a comment Dianne Tam added to one of these photos, the unattributed full-length portrait (below) of William Barnett, husband of Anne Judd, she claimed she was helping descendants. Had she also uploaded scans of the versos of these photographs bearing photographers' studio marks, the problems of identification could have been halved. The photographer in this instance can be identified by the plinth, the huge urn, the carpet and the toning as Frederick Frith (1819-1871), taken ca. 1862, at his Murray St. studio, Hobart. A photo of his wife Ann Judd was taken in the same session - see below.

William Barnett Clifton House New Norfolk Tasmania 1864
This Photo is included in both Albums which consist of over 140 Huon & New Norfolk Photographs ranging from 1840-1890's Tasmania. Few are identified. I would like to help the Desecendents [sic] of the Hay Judd Thomas and Barnett Families find their Ancestors. So, any help to identify these wonderful Photos is welcomed. diannetam67

Note: diannetam67 originally shared this on 26 Feb 2011 [login required]
Errors of identification, therefore, rest with the original purchaser "diannetam67".

Father of the Judd family on board the Sir Charles Napier (1842), Thomas JUDD snr lived to the grand age of 93 yrs.

Thomas JUDD snr (1794-1887)
Birth: 29 May 1794, Barkway, Hertfordshire, England
Marriage: 15 December 1819, Elmdon, Essex, England to Elizabeth Cane (1793–1864)

JUDD CHILDREN as adults - siblings of diarist Thomas JUDD.
These photographs of Thomas JUDD's siblings may or may not have been correctly identified by the purchasers of the original two albums in 2011, or indeed those family members who subsequently linked to them on sites such as and once they were uploaded by Dianne Tam. Missing are images of Thomas Judd's sisters Elizabeth Judd, unmarried, who died in December 1842 soon after arrival at Hobart, and Rebecca Judd, wife of Joseph THOMAS, who died in childbirth in 1864. Joseph THOMAS sat for the portrait (above) included in this album, taken by Thomas J. NEVIN ca. 1869 at Port Cygnet.

Photo: Henry Judd (1836-1916) brother of Ann and Martha Judd (below) with wife Isabella Murdoch Williamson, married at New Norfolk, 20th April 1861.

This may be another photograph taken by Thomas J. Nevin ca. 1870 from the Judd family album.
The same arch and carpet are visible in a photograph taken by Nevin ca. 1870 of a young man in top hat and long beard. View here:

Source of Henry and Isabella Judd photo:
Photograph: Judd family private collections,

Martha Judd m. Smith? (1831 -1917), sister of Thomas, Elizabeth, Rebecca, Henry, John JUDD etc
Photograph: unattributed, Judd family private collections,

Absent from this list are the BDM details of the other two siblings John and Susan JUDD.

1. Thomas JUDD senior 1794–1887 BIRTH 29 MAY 1794 • Hertfordshire, England DEATH 7 AUG 1887 • Mt Pleasant, Franklin, Tasmania, Australia

Spouse: Elizabeth Cane 1793–1864 BIRTH 22 MAY 1793 • Elmdon, Essex, England DEATH 09 AUG 1864 • Franklin, Tasmania, Australia

1.1. Thomas Judd junior 1822–1915 BIRTH 3 APR 1822 • Barkway, Hertfordshire, England DEATH 24 MAY 1915 • Kew, Victoria, Australia, son of Thomas Judd and Elizabeth Cane

1.2. Henry Judd 1836-1916

Spouse: Isabella Murdoch Williamson 1836–1922 BIRTH 10 APR 1836 • New Town, Tasmania, Australia DEATH 14 OCT 1922 • Franklin, Tasmania, Australia house at Brookside Judbury Huonville

1.3. Martha Judd 1831 -1917

Spouse: Smith?

1.4. Elizabeth Judd 1820–1842 BIRTH 21 OCT 1820 • Barkway, Hertfordshire, England DEATH 31 DEC 1842 • Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

1.5. Rebecca Judd (1826-1864 - see above)

Spouse: Joseph Thomas - (ca. 1810 -1890 - see photo by Thomas Nevin above
This is possibly a portrait of their son Wilbraham Thomas.

Portrait of Wilbraham Thomas, son of Joseph and Rebecca Thomas (no date, no attribution)
Possibly taken ca. mid 1880s, 45 yrs old?
Wilbraham THOMAS (1853–1934)
Birth: 16 February 1853 Hobart, Tasmania
Death: 16 July1934 Hobart General Hospital

Anne Judd (1825-1879), wife of William Barnett (see portrait above)
This photograph was taken by Frederick Frith ca. 1862 in the same session as the photo (above) of her husband.

1.6.Ann Judd 1825–1879 BIRTH 1 FEB 1825 • Barkway, Hertfordshire, England DEATH 30 AUG 1879 • Campbell Town, Tasmania, Australia

Spouse: William Barnett 1821–1888 BIRTH 19 MAR 1821 • Westminster, London, England DEATH 23 AUG 1888 • Campbell Town, Tasmania, Australia

GRAVESTONE of Judd family buried at Cornelian Bay Hobart.


Addenda 2: more from the spy George O'Brien
The following information was sourced and cited in full directly from this site:
Familypedia: William Lee (c1799-1864)

"Bounty Immigrants - "Sir Charles Napier," a case study
Bounty immigrants were to have their fare paid by the Government of the Colony after arriving in New South Wales. Ships left from Plymouth or Liverpool and immigrants needed to make their own way to the port of departure. Immigrants applied to a shipping-agent who paid for their passage and hoped to make a profit on their fare when they later received the bounty from the Government. Once the immigrants arrived in the Colony, however, a decision was made as to their suitability. If they were deemed unsuitable and their bounty payment was refused they then owed the shipping-agent for their passage and began their new life in the Colony in debt.

The bounty being paid in 1842 when the Sir Charles Napier arrived in NSW was:
£19 per adult, or child 16 and over
£15 per child aged 15
£10 per child aged 7-14
£ 5 per child aged 1-6
£ 0 per child under 12m

The bounty list for the Sir Charles Napier lists those passengers for which the bounty was to be paid and those passengers for which the bounty was refused. The reasons for disallowing the bounty were kept in a separate book. Investigations were held into the suitability of the immigrants, and the investigation for the Sir Charles Napier has survived in a volume that is today titled Immigration Board: Reports by Immigration Board on complaints of Immigrants about their passage, 1838-87 that is held in the NSW State Records. This investigation shows that bounties could be refused on moral grounds.

Immigrants could also be called before the Immigration Board in order to give evidence against other passengers. One passenger from the Sir Charles Napier who gave evidence was George O’Brien, from Ireland, who had sailed with his wife and 5 children. (He described himself when giving evidence as having 6 children. Perhaps and elder child did not immigrate with them.)

The investigation of the bounty passengers on the Sir Charles Napier shows that people often gave incorrect information to increase their chances of being accepted for the bounty. The most common incorrect information was for adults to understate their age, but this could rarely be disputed. Giving an incorrect age therefore was not often able to be used as a reason for refusal of the bounty.

Some people assumed another identity or status to travel to New South Wales. The second most common incorrect information then was to travel under an assumed name. This could rarely be disputed, but when it was able to be disputed was sometimes part of why a bounty was refused on moral grounds.

Incorrect information that was regarded as abuse of the bounty system and used to refuse the bounty for passengers on the Sir Charles Napier included:
A single man and married woman with 2 children pretending to be a married couple. This woman was immigrating with her 2 children to join her husband who was a convict in the Colony.
A married woman pretending to be single (and understating her age) and having another family pretend that her son was their son. This woman was immigrating with her son to join her husband who was a convict in the Colony.
A married woman who pretended to be single and gave birth to a baby during the voyage. She was married to a soldier and was immigrating to join him.
A married couple bringing with them a 5 year old child that was not theirs.

Transcription of evidence of George O’Brien re voyage of Sir Charles Napier, 1842.
Added to the transcription are details in brackets about the person from the Bounty Immigrants list. These details were not in the evidence given.
Any other comments that have been added are also in brackets
All but 2 of the Immigrants against whom George O’Brien gave evidence, and any of their children, were disallowed the bounty for their passage. The 2 who were allowed their passage were one of the Scully’s and the Guyan who had been tried for murder. The Scully whose bounty was disallowed appears later in the evidence and had his bounty refused on moral grounds.

George O’Brien a married man Bounty Immigrant by “Sir Charles Napier” called in and examined –

I am a married man I have a wife and six children.

I heard some conversations on board between Kings County people and the Sailors, which induced me to keep a case of pistols about me. I heard four of them, two men named Scully and a man named Guynan and another whose name I do not recall say, that they were tried for the murder of Mr Biddulph, and owing to some contradictory evidence, they were liberated on bail.

I knew a man on board called Flynn (Thomas Flyn, 24, Farm labourer, RC, Dublin – in list of with Anne Hartford), he told me he was a single man, there was a woman on board who had some children with her. She passed as Flynn’s wife, but was not so, as I heard from Flynn. I knew Mrs Flynn alias Hartford (Anne Hartford, 37, House Servant, RC, Dublin, Paul 15, Rosanna 11) to be coming out to her husband who I heard was a prisoner here.

I knew a woman on board named Anne Chambers (26, Servant, RC, Kings County, bounty disallowed) she shipped as a single woman but she told me she was married and had a child on board, passing as a child of Patrick Cummins (George Cummins 13) and that she was coming out to her husband who was a prisoner of the Crown.

I knew a single girl named Jane Bryan (25, House Servant, RC, Queens County, bounty disallowed), she was delivered of a male child on board. I heard her say that she was a married woman and that her husband was a prisoner here. I knew Matthew Bryan (26, Labourer, RC, Queens County), who passed as Jane Bryan’s brother. I heard Matthew Bryan acknowledge that he was the father of the child of which Jane was delivered on board.

Mary Flood (19, House Servant, RC, Liverpool) I do not think was a good girl. She could never be kept away from the sailors.

Isabella Thompson (18, House Servant, Prot, Liverpool) & Rachel Thompson (22, Laundress, Prot, Liverpool, bounty disallowed) were also incorrect.

I think Mary Shaw (18, House Servant, Prot, Liverpool) an incorrect girl. She came on board in the workhouse dress.

I think Jane Perry (20, House servant, Prot, Liverpool, bounty disallowed) an incorrect girl.

I knew Catherine Murphy (20, Domestic Servant, RC, Sydney NSW), she was a most barefaced girl. I have seen her lying in a bed in the hospital with Watson Third Mate. I have also seen her in the green-house on deck in very improper situations with Watson.

I knew Hannah Plunkett (18, House Servant, RC, Dublin). I have seen a very undue intimacy between Pemberton and her. I have seen them on deck with a Cloak folded about them.

I knew Mary Carroll (22, Servant, RC, Kings County) a single girl. I have seen Asken one of the Officers of the vessel with this girl in his berth in the green-house in such a position as no proper girl would admit.

I knew Elizabeth Bradley (22, Dressmaker, Prot, Kilkerry). I do not think her a correct girl. I have seen Richard Wheeler a sailor on board in bed with her – he slept with her for nearly two months during the voyage. The constables on board took no steps to prevent this conduct, as she had an apartment of her own partitioned off from the other Immigrants, for which accommodation she paid the Agent in Dublin. Her uncle told me she was a married woman, that her husband had £500 per annum in Ireland, that he was obliged to separate from her owing to her conduct and grant her an allowance of £30 per year. She is now living on the bounty of this sailor.

I knew Esther Toole (23, House Servant, RC, Dublin). She came on board a single girl but was delivered of a male child on board. She said she was married to a soldier, that he was out here, and that she hoped to find him.

I knew Margaret Wickham (19, Dressmaker, RC, Dublin). I have seen this girl permit the Captain to take liberties with her at night. I have seen him keep her on deck.

I have never sent the Doctor guilty of any undue familiarity or freedom with any of the Immigrants. I was by when one of the Immigrants named Kerry threatened the Doctor for endeavouring to check the immorality that existed on board. I heard him say “The big bellied Quack ought to be thrown overboard and the Ship sunk.” I have frequently heard the Doctor tell the present Captain and sailors that they could not be permitted to go between decks. I have heard the sailors say that as the Captain took liberties with a girl, so they would, having as much liberty ask to do so.

The vessel was dirty when we left Liverpool.

I have heard the Doctor always insist on the Immigrants always getting their allowance of provisions. I heard one of the Mates giving the Doctor the lie when asking for the Immigrants rights.

I have seen the Captain and some of the Officers frequently drunk during the voyage, but I never saw the Doctor in that way during the voyage. The Second Mate named Asken I have seen drunk almost every day. I have seen him lifted up with a rope from between decks drunk.

The ship was on fire on one occasion, which was caused by one of the Officers named Watson and two of the Immigrants going down to draw off spirits with a light when the spirits ignited. We had to rip up the deck in different places and pour down water. If it were not for the First Mate named Hargraves and one of the Immigrants we would never have come to Sydney.

I knew Charles Arkinson (18, Grazier, Farmer & Labourer, Prot, Cumberland) and Elizabeth Brockell (26, Dairy Maid, Prot, Lancashire). They lived together during the voyage as man and wife.

I knew Edward Bigam (24, Labourer, Prot, Kildare) and Margaret Dobbins (22, House Servant, RC, Queens County). After the first month they always lived on board as man and wife.

I never would allow or advise any persons to permit females to come out in any Immigrant ship unless protected by their own immediate relation.

I knew Mary Malone (Mary Kilfoyle, 22, Farm Servant, RC Kildare). She came out as a daughter of John Kilfoil, but I heard Kilfoil say she was not his daughter, and that she was conducting herself so badly on board he would have nothing to say to her.

I believe Mary Flood (19, Farm Servant, RC, Liverpool) is now on the streets of Sydney. (That is she is working as a prostitute.)

I knew Ann Watkins (19, House Maid, RC, Dublin). I understand from the happenings that she was not the sister or any relative of Patrick Watkins.

I knew Elizabeth Cummins (19, Nurse Maid, RC, Kings County). I do not believe Cummins to be her name.

I have seen John Scully (29, Farm Labourer, RC, Kings County) lying in the berth with Sarah Acres (21, Servant, Prot, Kings County).

I knew Joshua Abbotson. He had a child on board passed as his own, but I do not know, nor did I hear to whom it belonged. It does not belong to Abbotson. (Amelia, 5)

The biscuit was very indifferent.

I came out as an agricultural labourer. I had a Public House in Dublin for the last five years. Major Browne paid £12 for my passage to come out here. I had the option to come out here or go to America. I preferred coming here.

Cross examined by Mr Ronald: I have seen Mary Flood, Isabella and Rachel Thompson, Mary Shaw and Jane Perry permit the sailors to put their heads in their bosoms and elsewhere and in fact to handle them as they wished. I heard the Rachel Thompson was caught under the long-boat in an improper situation. The present Captain would not permit the regular allowance of water to be given out and it was not until the last month of the voyage that the Captain would permit the scale of provisions to be pout on the storehouse door. The £12 paid for me was paid in Mr Byrnes office in Liverpool.
(Signed) George O’Brien

Immigration Board: Reports by Immigration Board on complaints of Immigrants about their passage, 1838-87. "[end of article cited in full from William Lee page at with thanks to the page's author]

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Friday, September 24, 2021

Best of friends: Emma PITT and Liz O'MEAGHER 1866

SEMIOSIS: deixis
PITT, Emma nee BARTLETT (1847-1899)
PITT, Albert, solicitor (1840-1906)
O'MEAGHER, Liz (1847-1906) and Arthur BELL (1839-1921)
WOOLLEY, Charles, photographer (1834-1922)
EPIDEMIC New Zealand 1906
"I say Captain Mackie is not to show his face in Nelson without you Liz O'Meagher.

Emma Pitt

June 6th 1866"

Subject: a young woman holding a summer hat, wearing a summer dress frilled at the hem.
Standing pose, left hand resting on the back of a studded slipper chair, her gaze directed slightly above and to the right of the photographer.
Photographer: Charles A. Woolley, studio stamp on verso, 42 Macquarie St. Hobart, Tasmania
Location and date: Hobart, 1866
Format: full length studio portrait, sepia print, carte-de-visite
Condition: foxing, surface dirt, torn, fair condition
Provenance: DSFB, Melbourne 2021, sold as " Studio portrait of a lady identified as Liz O'Meagher. Hobart Town, Tasmania, 1866"
Copyright: © KLW NFC Imprint & KLW NFC Private Collection 2021
Verso inscription: "I say Captain Mackie is not show his face in Nelson without you Liz O'Meagher. Emma Pitt June 6th 1866"

The cdv: a deictic mystery
The verso inscription on this carte-de-visite - "I say Captain Mackie is not to show his face in Nelson without you Liz O'Meagher" - signed by Emma Pitt, dated 6th June 1866, has created differences in perception as to the identity of the young woman in the photograph, first by the seller (DSFB) on the one hand, and second by the purchaser (KLW NFC Imprint) on the other. Is it a photograph of Emma Pitt's addressee "you Liz O'Meagher", (b. Tas 1847- d. NZ 1906) or does it represent the sender Emma Pitt herself (b. Tas 1847-d. NZ 1899)?

The cdv was offered for sale at Douglas Stewart Fine Books (Melbourne) in May 2021 as a "Studio portrait of a lady identified as Liz O'Meagher. Hobart Town, Tasmania, 1866", so is the young woman in the photograph Emma's friend Liz O'Meagher, or is Emma sending her friend a photograph of herself? Odd, perhaps, that Emma Pitt should send a precious and possibly unique object such as a photographic portrait by Charles A. Woolley of her friend back to her friend, especially if the photograph was a gift from her friend in the first place. The transaction would look like this : "I" - Emma - am returning to "you" - Liz - a visual signifier of "you" - Liz - which may have been given to "me" - Emma - by "you" - Liz - - and now "I" - Emma - am returning "you" - Liz - to "you" - Liz. Why return a photograph of the addressee to the addressee, which in some contexts could affront the recipient but in this instance, it seems, is a performative act in which the sender Emma hopes to encourage Liz to come visit her on a ship to Nelson - to "here" - from where she is sending her friend the cdv who is "there" in Hobart.

The cdv as a multimodal message is quite complex. Emma's single sentence is a powerful theatrical gesture in tenor and text. She uses the deictic "you" as a cataphoric pointer forward to the name "Liz O'Meagher" without reference to the photograph itself or to the name of the woman it portrays. "This is you" or "this is me" are absent pointers which could identify the subject of the photograph. Liz O'Meagher is clearly intended as the receiver, the addressee, the "you" in script, in textual form on the verso of the cdv but there is the addition of a visual signifier in the message, the photograph of a young woman on the recto of the cdv, whose identity is not altogether straightforward despite comparisons with extant photographic records taken in the same decade and into the 1880s of - potentially - both young women (see below).  There is, of course, the possibility that the photograph represents another young woman entirely.

To initiate the message, Emma is giving an order to the addressee "you Liz O'Meagher" when she uses  the modal  "I say" to insist that what she is about to say is to be remembered and acted on. If paraphrased, "I say" imports something like "I want you to repeat this, to quote me when I say this, this is not just an opinion, it is what I want, so do what I want, you ought to do this". Secondly, Emma's use of Captain Mackie's name which stands in for "voyage" is both synecdochic and anaphoric (external) to the message, but since he is nowhere to hear it, Emma performs a promise that exudes flirtatious but ultimately unquantifiable power and a doubtful scenario  - she will not only admonish him personally, should he show up at Nelson without Liz O'Meagher on board, she will banish him from her sight - or, as she puts it, he "is not to show his face" without her. The addressee "you Liz O'Meagher", who is "without" to Emma, must act on Emma's message and book her passage with Captain Mackie on his very next voyage to NZ to become inclusive within her social set, to avoid further "finger pointing" or deictic acts just like this one which = I say this to you here so you must do that for me there. 

Assuming that Liz O'Meagher received the cdv, on reading the verso she may have found it amusing, humorous, comedic even in what Emma was proposing to do to Captain Mackie. Then again, Liz O'Meagher may have become anxious while processing her perception of the  photograph's significance to them both.

Reversing the gaze back onto the sender, this may be a photograph of Emma herself, sealed with her signature and date. Emma Bartlett was married to Albert Pitt by June 1866 when she dated the verso of the cdv, while Liz O'Meagher was still single and would not marry Arthur Bell until February 1867. She would therefore be sending a message in her own image as an example of the happiness to which her friend in Hobart might aspire, with the wish she (Liz) join her (Emma) as soon as possible in New Zealand, perhaps with her groom-to-be for their honeymoon. The photograph as memento of their close friendship would then reflect an image on which Liz O'Meagher might gaze and imagine for herself a similar happy outcome (presumably sans envie).

That both young women were close friends is evident on the marriage registration of Emma Pitt. Born Emma Bartlett, she married solicitor Albert Pitt on 26th January, 1866 at St. David's Cathedral, Hobart, Tasmania. Her friend Liz O'Meagher was a signatory witness at the marriage. If this photograph does not depict Liz O'Meagher, it depicts Emma. This is "me", Emma is saying by sending her friend a photograph of herself. Taken by Charles A. Woolley at his Hobart studio, 42 Macquarie Street, Hobart Town (Tasmania) perhaps in the summer of 1866, Emma may have visited Woolley's studio for a photograph of herself dressed in her best summer outfit for a special occasion. It is not a bridal gown she is wearing, so the occasion was not her wedding day, nor was it a winter outfit suitable for travel in March when she departed Hobart with her husband on board ship to join Captain Hugh Mackie's steamer the Gothenburg at Melbourne for the voyage to New Zealand. Rather, this photograph, if it represents Emma Pitt, was how Liz O'Meagher might look, Emma is suggesting to her friend, if she were to follow her example.

Emma and Albert Pitt in New Zealand
Captain Hugh Mackie arrived in New Zealand in command of the steamer Gothenburg on March 7, 1866 with passengers Mr and Mrs. Pitt.

Sources: Papers Past NZ, due to return to Melbourne on December 27th 1866.

Subject: Emma Pitt nee Bartlett (1847-1899) or Elizabeth Bell nee O'Meagher (1847-1906)?
Photographer: Charles A. Woolley
Location and date: 42 Macquarie St. Hobart, Tasmania 1866
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint & KLW NFC Group Private Collection 2021

Emma's husband, Albert Pitt (1842-1906) was photographed by Charles Woolley at Hobart, possibly earlier than his wedding in 1866, if the studio decor is any indication.

Albert Pitt, Hobart 1866

Subject: Albert Pitt (1840-1906)
Photographer: Charles A. Woolley
Location and date: Hobart 1866
Archives Office Tasmania Ref: AUTAS001126072719W800

Albert Pitt was the sole surviving child of Captain Francis Pitt, Harbour Master and Maria Reardon, who married on 20th July 1833 at Hobart, Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania). They lived at Pitt Farm, New Town until retiring to Napoleon Street, Battery Point where Francis Pitt died in 1874. Albert escorted his mother Maria back to Nelson to live with his family. She died there on 29 June 1896, 82 yrs old.

In 1864 Albert Pitt migrated to Nelson, New Zealand, where he started his own law firm, returning briefly to marry Emma Bartlett, daughter of Edmund Bartlett at Hobart, on  25th January 1866. 

Marriage of Albert Pitt and Emma Bartlett January 1866

Pitt, Albert
Record Type: Marriages
Gender: Male
Age: 23
Spouse: Bartlett, Emma
Gender: Female
Age: 18
Date of marriage: 26 Jan 1866
Registered: Hobart
Registration year: 1866
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:868047
Resource: RGD37/1/25 no 120

Barely a week after Emma Pitt signed the verso of the cdv she intended to send to Liz O'Meagher on 6th June 1866, her husband Albert was called to appear as an advocate for the defendants, the Burgess gang, who murdered James Battle on 12th June 1866 on the Maungatapu track, south-east of Nelson. Four other men were killed on the same track the following day. Three of the gang were executed, the fourth - Joseph Sullivan - was deported. Read the full account here....
On 12 June 1866, James Battle was murdered on the Maungatapu track, south-east of Nelson. The following day four other men were killed nearby – a crime that shocked the colony. These killings, the work of the 'Burgess gang', resembled something from the American 'wild west'.
The case was made more intriguing by the fact that one of the gang, Joseph Sullivan, turned on his co-accused and provided the evidence that convicted them. The trial was followed with great interest and sketches and accounts of the case were eagerly snapped up by the public. Unlike his colleagues, Sullivan escaped the gallows.
All four members of the Burgess gang had come to New Zealand via the goldfields of Victoria, Australia. Three of them had been transported to Australia for crimes committed in England. They were the sort of 'career criminals' that the authorities in Otago had feared would arrive following the discovery of gold in the province. The South Island goldfields of the 1860s offered potentially rich pickings for criminals. Crime was generally the work of individuals, and often a spontaneous act fuelled by alcohol, but there were notable exceptions.... etc etc
Source: 'The Maungatapu murders',
URL:, (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 13-Aug-2015

The Burgess gang. (Clockwise from top) Joseph Thomas Sullivan, Thomas Kelly, Philip Levy and Richard Burgess, photographed at Nelson gaol in 1866.

In 1868 Albert Pitt entered into partnership with Henry Adams, trading as Adams &  Pitt. With the dissolution of that partnership,  he partnered with Edward Moore, operating as the firm Pitt & Moore. (Source:

The Nelson Provincial Museum has a sizeable collection of photographs of Albert Pitt and members of his family but is there a photograph of Emma Pitt which can compare favourably with the subject of the cdv she sent to her friend Liz O'Meagher dated June 6th, 1866? In other words, do any of these photographs of female members of Albert and Emma Pitt's family taken from ca. 1880-1889 resemble the woman in Emma Pitt's cdv sent to her friend Liz O'Meagher?

Mrs Emma Pitt 1889 Nelson NZ

Pitt, Mrs A [sic - as in Mrs Albert Pitt]
Glass Monochrome/Media/Photography half plate/glass plate/
Production date Oct 1889
Photo collection reference number 16408
Collection Tyree Studio Collection

Albert Pitt, 1883
Source: Nelson Provincial Museum (New Zealand)
Object type glass plate negative
Media and materials Glass Monochrome/Media/Photography 4 x 5/glass plate/Format/Photography
Collection W E Brown Collection
Credit line Pitt, Mr A. Dec 1883. Nelson Provincial Museum, W E Brown Collection: 11795

Pitt Family NZ
Photo collection reference number 176235
Description Full length studio portrait of four men, four women and a boy.
Object type glass plate negative
Media/materials description Glass plate
Media and materials Glass Monochrome/Media/Photography 6 x 8/glass plate/
Format/Photography Measurements 6 x 8 inches
Collection Tyree Studio Collection

DEATH of Emma PITT, 1899
Record ID WKCE05046_C
Surname PITT
First names EMMA
Age 52 years
Date of interment 01/09/1899
Date of death 30/08/1899
Gender Female
Cemetery Wakapuaka
Copyright © 2021 Nelson City Council

Albert Pitt's wife Emma Pitt nee Bartlett was 52 years old when she died in 1899. His will of 1906 named three of their children to inherit his estate in equal measure: his daughters Minnie Constanza Macdonald and Charlotte Emma Georgina Pitt, and his son Wilmot Bartlett Pitt. Albert Pitt died 64 years old on 18/11/1906; Emma Pitt died 52 years old on 30/8/1899. Two of their children predeceased them: Annie Pitt, died 3 months old on 11/4/1871 and Sidney Herbert Pitt died 28 years old on 22/3/1890.

No. 7134 In the Supreme Court of Nelson Wellington District
Be it known that upon search being made in the Office of the Supreme Court at Wellington in the colony of New Zealand it appears that on the twenty first day of December 1906, the last Will and Testament of Albert Pitt, late of the City of Nelson in the Provincial District of Nelson but lately in the City of Wellington both in the colony of New Zealand Barrister deceased who died in the City of Christchurch in the said colony on or about the eighteenth day of November 1906 was proved by the Public Trustee in the colony of New Zealand a corporation sole with perpetual succession and a seal of office the executor named therein and which Probate now remains of record in the said office the true tenor of the said will is in the words and figures following to wit: - This is the last Will and Testament of me Albert Pitt of the city of Nelson and lately of the City of Wellington in New Zealand Barrister I revoke all former wills and other testamentary dispositions by me at any time heretobefore made and declare that this alone to be my last Will and Testament I give devise and bequeath all my real and personal property whatsoever and wheresoever unto my children Minnie Constanza Macdonald Charlotte Emma Georgina Pitt and Wilmot Bartlett Pitt in equal shares as tenants in common I devise all estates vested in me by any trust subject to the equities affecting the same to my Trustee hereinafter named I direct that my just debts funeral and testamentary expenses shall be paid out of my estate I appoint the Public - [Albert Pitt] - Trustee to be the Trustee and Executor of this my Will. In Witness whereof I have hereunder set my hand the 13th day of November 1906 Albert Pitt. Signed by the said Albert Pitt as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us both being present at the same time who at his request in his sight and presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names attesting witnesses E. N. G. Foulton Private Secretary Wellington Kassie Turner Nurse Christchurch In faith and testimony whereof these Letters Testimonial are issued Given at Wellington aforesaid as to the time of the aforesaid search and the sealing of these present this 9th day of April 1907
Seal of the Supreme Court of New Zealand
Ewing & Seager
Sealed 6/6/07
Assets Tas £225 [sig?]
Source: Archives Office Tasmania
Pitt, Albert
Record Type: Wills
Year: 1907
File number: 7134
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:1667091
Resource: AD960-1-29 Will Number 7134$init=AD960-1-29-7134_1

Memorial Walk
In Nelson, NZ, at the Bridge Street entrance of the Queens Gardens are the wrought iron Albert Pitt Memorial gates. Albert Pitt (1841-1906) was the Minister of Defence, Lt Colonel of the NZ
Militia and C.O. of the Nelson Military District 1877-1899. The opening ceremony took place on 2nd May, 1914.

Women in the O'Meagher family
So who was Emma Pitt's friend Liz O'Meagher? She was Elizabeth Ann O'Meagher (b. Hobart, Tas 1847 - d. Kawhia,NZ 1906) , the younger daughter of Elizabeth Anne O'Meagher snr (d. 1879) and William O'Meagher (d. 1849). Her father was chief clerk of  H.M. Ordnance Stores, New Wharf, Hobart. She married Arthur Bell (his full name was Arthur Waite Iredale Bell) on 5th February 1867 at St. David's Cathedral, Hobart. Arthur Waite Iredale Bell (1839-1921) and his sister Kezia Mary Bell (1849-1940) were born in Launceston, Tasmania to auctioneer Joseph William Bell (1793-1870) and Georgina Ford (d. NZ 1909). The elder daughter Mary Frances O'Meagher married Robert Walker on 14 July 1879 at St. David's Cathedral, Hobart. There were two sons as well as two daughters: Franc Penn O'Meagher and Wm Hudson O'Meagher (d. 1883) who were mentioned in the Last Will and Testament of Elizabeth Anne O'Meagher snr. A Codicil added to their mother's will in 1873 requested that another daughter - or daughter-in-law - Elizabeth Frances O'Meagher - be granted an annuity (see will below).

BELL-O'MEAGHER. -On 5th February, at St. David's Cathedral, by the Rev. F. H. Cox, Arthur Bell, Esq., of, Rockhampton, Queensland, to Elizabeth Anne, youngest daughter of the late W. O'Meagher, Esq., of Her Majesty's Ordnance. 8f
Source: "Family Notices" The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954) 8 February 1867: 1. Web. 4 Sep 2021

Archives Office Tasmania
Marriage of Arthur Bell to Elizabeth Ann O'Meagher, under 21$init=RGD37-1-26P76

WALKER—O'MEAGHER.—On the 31st August, at St. David's Cathedral, by the Rev. F. H. Cox, Robert Walker, Esq., of Gipps Land, Victoria, to Mary Frances, eldest daughter of the late William O'Meagher, Esq., of H.M. Ordnance.
Source: Family Notices (1879, July 14). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 1.


Bell, Percy Walter
Record Type: Births
Gender: Male
Father: Bell, Arthur
Mother: Elizabeth, Anne O'Meagher
Date of birth:04 Mar 1870
Registered: Hobart
Registration year: 1870
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:972964
Resource: RGD33/1/10/ no 964

Registration informant of the birth of Percy Walter Bell to Elizabeth Anne Bell (formerly O'Meagher) and Arthur Bell on 11th April 1870 was Elizabeth's mother, Elizabeth O'Meagher snr. The informant column on the registration clearly states "E. A. O'Meagher, Grandmother, (present at birth) Macquarie Street" [Hobart]. No press notice was published of this birth. An earlier birth of a son born at Rockhampton was published in the Hobart press on 28 February1868. Elizabeth Bell nee O'Meagher, wife of Arthur Bell, gave birth to three sons (Percy born at Hobart in 1870, two born at Rockhampton, Qld) and a daughter in 1873, Josephine Mary Bell, who died at 5 yrs of age at her parents' residence Athelstane Range, Rockhampton, Queensland. Another son was born in Hobart on 30 August 1878.


1. Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), Friday 28 February 1868, page 1
BELL. -On 4th February, at her residence, Athelstane Range, Rockhampton, Queensland, the wife of Mr. Arthur Bell, of a son.

2. Rockhampton Bulletin (Qld. : 1871 - 1878), Monday 10 February 1873, page 1
BELL.—On Sunday, the 9th instant, at her residence, Athelstane Range, the wife of Mr. Arthur Bell, of a daughter.

3. Daily Northern Argus (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1875 - 1896), Wednesday 9 June 1875, page 3
BELL.—On the 8th instant, at her residence, Athelstane Range, the wife of Arthur Bell of a son

4. Capricornian (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1875 - 1929), Saturday 8 December 1877, page 1
BELL.—On the 5th instant, at her father's residence, Athelstane Range, Josephine Mary, aged 5 years' youngest daughter of Mr. Arthur Bell.
On 30th August 1878, Elizabeth Ann Bell nee O'Meagher gave birth to another son, Robert Hudson Bell at Hobart, registered by his father, Arthur Bell, hardware merchant, of Battery Point, Hobart, on 3rd October 1878.

Record Type: Births
Gender: Male
Father: Bell, Arthur
Mother: Elizabeth, Ann O'Meagher
Date of birth: 30 Aug 1878
Registered: Hobart
Registration year: 1878
Record ID: NAME_INDEXES:1093410
Resource: RGD33/1/12/ no 270
Archives Office Tasmania$init=RGD33-1-12-P150


£7250 WORTH!
And similar class of Goods,
Are now offered for Private Sale by the

In consequence of Large Shipments of above Goods having lately come to hand, our Stock has been increased beyond ordinary requirements. We must therefore clear off a quantity of beautiful. NEW GOODS by RAPID SALE, and will do so at

Squatters, Storekeepers, and the public generally should avail themselves of this opportunity, and send all their orders to us quickly.


Source: Advertising (1878, January 28). Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954), p. 1.

Although Arthur Bell was in Hobart on 3rd October, 1878 when he registered the birth of Robert Hudson Bell, he had not yet managed to sell their residence and property at Athelstane Range nor his business, Arthur Bell & Co. Ironmongers, at Rockhampton. Facing insolvency, he advertised the sale of all his stock valued at £7250 on 28 January 1878 and ran advertisements as agent for rubber paint imported from San Francisco from September to December 1878 in the Rockhampton press:

Source: Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 - 1954), Saturday 21 September 1878, page 2

Gold Medal from California State Agricultural Society
Silver Medal from Nevada State Agricultural Society
Bronze Medal from New South Wales Agricultural Society
Gold Medal from Oregon State Agricultural Society
Diplomas from - California State Agricultural Society, 1875; Mechanics' Institute Industrial Fair, 1875; Santa Clara Valley Agricultural Society, 187C; San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Society, 1870; Sonoma and Marin District. Agricultural Society, 1870.

207, Sacramento-street,

Sole Agents for Queensland and N. S. Wales.

Local Agents

In 1875, Elizabeth Anne O'Meagher snr acquired sixteen perches on Mona Street near Colville Road, Battery Point, Hobart, which was numbered 1 Mona St. on her death four years later, in 1879. Her daughter Elizabeth Ann Bell nee O'Meagher and husband Arthur Bell, hardware merchant, had relocated from Queensland and were residing with her at Mona Street when their son Robert Hudson was born in August 1878.

O'Meagher, Elizabeth Ann
Record Type: Land
Location: Hobart
Remarks:16 perches
Record ID:NAME_INDEXES:1755311
RGD1/1 Book 78, page 158$init=RD1-1-78P158JPG

O'MEAGHER - On July 11, at No. 1 Mona-street, Battery Point, Elizabeth Anne, widow of the late Wm. O'Meagher, Esq., H.M. Ordnance, aged 67 years The funeral will leave her late residence THIS DAY, at half past 2 o'clock. 5559
Source: Family Notices (1879, July 14). The Mercury (Hobart, Tas. : 1860 - 1954), p. 1.

1879: LAST WILL and TESTAMENT of Elizabeth Anne O'MEAGHER snr
Liz O'Meagher's father, William O'Meagher died at their residence in Argyle Street, Hobart on 20th December 1849. He was chief clerk at H. M. Ordnance Stores, New Wharf, Hobart.
Death of William O'Meagher
On Thursday morning, the 13th instant, at his residence Argyle-street. Wm O'Meagher, Esq., of H. M. Ordnance, in the 58th year of his age.
Source: Family Notices (1849, December 20). The Britannia and Trades' Advocate (Hobart Town, Tas. : 1846 - 1851), p. 2.

Elizabeth Anne O'Meagher snr, wife of William O'Meagher,  died thirty years later at the property she purchased in 1875, No. 1, Mona Street Battery Point, Hobart, Tasmania. Her will provided for her two daughters and two sons from probate of £5,150. The codicil added to her will in 1873 requested that another daughter - or daughter-in-law - Elizabeth Frances O'Meagher - be granted an annuity (the codicil below on the second page is almost illegible):

Above: Page 1: O'Meagher, Elizabeth Anne Record Type: Wills
Below: Pages 2 and 3: O'Meagher, Elizabeth Anne Record Type: Wills

O'Meagher, Elizabeth Anne
Record Type: Wills
File number:2226
Record ID:
Will Number 2226

Derwent from Mona St Battery Point

View of the River Derwent and Eastern shore, Hobart, from No. 1 Mona Street, Battery Point.
Photo copyright © KLW NFC Group 2014

Liz O'Meagher and Arthur Bell in New Zealand
It seems that Emma Pitt finally did get her wish to re-unite in New Zealand with her friend Elizabeth Ann Bell she knew as Liz O'Meagher. Both women would lead short lives - both were born in 1847, Emma died in 1899 (52 yrs old) and Liz died in 1906 (59 yrs old). Both were born in Tasmania and died in New Zealand: neither reached their 60th birthday.

Liz O'Meagher's husband, Arthur Waite Iredale Bell (1839-1921) and his sister Kezia Mary Bell (1849-1940) were born in Launceston, Tasmania to auctioneer Joseph William Bell (1793-1870) and Georgina Ford (d. NZ, 1909). Kezia Mary Bell and Robert Gardner (1842-1919) were married at New Town, Tasmania in 1868. In 1879, Elizabeth and Arthur Bell left Tasmania in 1879 to join Arthur's sister Kezia who had moved to Christchurch, NZ, in 1877 with her husband, Arthur Bell's former partner Robert Gardner when their Rockhampton hardware business faced bankruptcy. Georgina Bell moved from Tasmania to New Zealand to join her son Arthur and daughter Kezia, dying there at the grand age of 91 years in April 1909.

Settled at Christchurch, New Zealand, Elizabeth Bell (Liz O'Meagher) and Arthur Bell became parents once more with the birth of their daughter Winifred Kassin Bell (1882-1963) who later married Gardner's son Robert Clifford Gardner (1882-1943) in 1908. Within two years, Arthur Bell had to contend with bankruptcy. On 18th August 1884, he filed a petition in the Supreme Court, Christchurch, NZ to be adjudged a bankrupt but by 1886, he was back in business advertising baby carriages from his shop called Bell's Hardware House, in Victoria Avenue, Wanganui. For the remainder of Elizabeth Bell's life, she lived with her husband and family at Wanganui on the west coast of the New Zealand's north island, north of Wellington, but on one fateful day in November 1906, while residing with her son at Hari Hari near Kawhia where he had established a flax mill, she fell ill during an epidemic of influenza. Robert Hudson Bell, 28 years old, son of Arthur Bell, died of influenza on 20th November 1906, his mother Elizabeth Ann Bell (Liz Meagher), 59 years old, wife of Arthur Bell, died the following day, on 21st November 1906.

Deaths of Robert Hudson Bell and Elizabeth Bell
Source:Manawatu Standard, Volume XLI, Issue 8143, 26 November 1906, Page 4
BELL - At Hari Hari, Kawhia, on 21st November, Elizabeth Ann Bell, aged 59, wife of Arthur Bell, lately residing at Paiaka; and on 20th November, Robert Hudson Bell, aged 28, son of Arthur Bell.

The local press in early 1906 reported the success of Robert Hudson's flax mill operating as Bell Bros with Ross at Hari Hari. Robert Bell's brother(s) who were his partners were not mentioned:

The flax industry is rapidly extending in the Kawhia district. Mr. Langley's mill at the Pakoka is running long hours, whilst Messrs. Bell Bros, and Ross' mill at Harihari is now working at top. Mr. A. D. Newton has surveyed two mill sites at Marakopa for a wealthy syndicate, which, it is understood, intends putting in plants at an early date. Besides this the virgin area at Nukuhakari is to be sold by the Government, and no doubt mills will be erected there.
Source: New Zealand Herald, Volume XLIII, Issue 13081, 22 January 1906, Page 4

But by November 1906, reports followed the spread of the epidemic, and then of the deaths of Elizabeth Bell and her son Robert Hudson Bell with brief details of their lives.
A severe epidemic of influenza has lately made its appearance at Harihari. In consequence Messrs Bell Bros, and Ross' flax mill has been closed for a week, no fewer than 10 of the hands being laid up.
Source: Kawhia Settler and Raglan Advertiser, Volume IV, Issue 285, 16 November 1906
Mr. R. Bell, of the Harihari flaxmill, who was ill with influenza for some time died last week. Mr Bell was highly esteemed in the district, and was a prominent athlete, being captain of the Marokopa Football Club, and an excellent rifle shot. Mrs Bell with the same complaint, passed away on the Wednesday, only surviving her son by a day. The deceased lady only came into the district a short time ago from the Wairarapa, and was greatly esteemed by a large circle of friends.
Source: King Country Chronicle, Volume I, Issue 6, 30 November 1906, Page 3

Father of Robert, husband of Elizabeth, Arthur Bell himself was required to perform the services at the graveside in the absence of available clergymen in the district:
Last week I reported a severe outbreak of influenza at Harihari, and it is with feelings of deepest regret that I have this week to chronicle the death of two highly-esteemed residents of that locality through illness brought on by that complaint, Some two weeks ago Mr. Robert Bell caught influenza and laid up for a, time, but returning to work too soon got relapse, and pneumonia supervening, despite most careful attention the patient succumbed to the attack on Tuesday afternoon, November 20. The deceased was a member of the firm of Messrs. Bell Bros, and Ross, and was a universal favourite with all who knew him. In the sporting arena the late Mr. Bell was prominent, being captain of the Marokopa Football Club and one of the best-rifle shots in the district. Quiet and reserved he was, but genuine and trite, and the sudden cutting off of one so robust and who had led such a clean life , at the early age of 28 came as a sudden blow. Mrs. Bell was by this time so dangerously ill. that the sad news was kept from her, and her position becoming worse Dr. Sanders, of Raglan, was sent for to consult with Dr. Jenkins, but before he could arrive the patient had passed away on Wednesday afternoon. The deceased lady had only removed to this district a few months ago, coming from the Manawata, where she was esteemed by a very large circle of friends. The late Mrs. Bell was 62 years of age at the time of her demise. It was impossible to bring the remains to the Kawhia cemetery, consequently the burials took place at a private cemetery on the homestead. In the absence of a clergyman, the services at the graveside were conducted by Mr. Bell (father and husband). The news of the deaths came as a surprise to residents of this district, and the relatives have the heartfelt sympathy of the whole of the inhabitants.
Source: New Zealand Herald, Volume XLIII, Issue 13347, 29 November 1906, Page 7

Once more, the mystery of the cdv
No early photographs to date appear to be extant of any of the women from this Tasmanian branch of the O'Meagher family, with the possible exception of the cdv in question signed by Emma Pitt in 1866, which may or may not be a photograph of Liz O'Meagher. If photographer Woolley's cdv was a photograph of Elizabeth Ann Bell nee O'Meagher, known affectionately to her friend Emma Pitt as Liz O'Meagher, it is indeed a rare family memento, especially so given the circumstances of her death. One question remains: if Emma Pitt actually sent the cdv to her friend Liz O'Meagher in Hobart, Tasmania from Nelson, New Zealand in 1866, why did Liz O'Meagher not take it with her when she left Tasmania to settle permanently in New Zealand with husband Arthur Bell and family in the late 1870s? Did she leave it in Tasmania for her sisters and mother? Or was it returned to her mother and sisters from her New Zealand family in her memory because she died so suddenly with her son Robert in 1906?

The additional mystery which this cdv presents is this: how did it find its way to Melbourne (at DSFB) to be offered for sale in 2021? Provenance, anyone?

Sources: David Gardner Crouch, Canada.
Papers Past (National Library of New Zealand) - Bell and Gardner families

Is there any comparison between the young woman pictured below - identified as Elizabeth Frances Bell (1847-1930) - and the young woman in the cdv (at top) which Emma Pitt sent her friend dated June 1866? The short answer is no, the young woman with child pictured below was the wife of Frederick George Bell, apparently no relation to the family of either Arthur Bell or Elizabeth Frances O'Meagher. 

The photograph below was taken in 1875 of Elizabeth Frances Bell, maiden name unknown. Her death notice listed a number of deceased children:
BELL.—On the 4th July, 1930, at the residence of her son (Mr. J. H. Bell), 44 Leveson street, North Melbourne, Elizabeth Frances, widow of the late Frederick George Bell, mother of Frederick, Samuel (deceased), Elizabeth (deceased), John, Ross (deceased), Flora (deceased), William (deceased), Annie (deceased), Robert (deceased), Albert (deceased), and Victor, aged 83 years, resident of North Melbourne 76 years.
Source: Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1957), Monday 7 July 1930, page 1

Elizabeth Frances Bell (1847-1930) & and Frederick George Bell ca. 1875
Wife of Frederick George Bell (d. 1910, North Melbourne)
Photographer: Stewart and Co. Melbourne, ca. 1875
Part of: Sub-collection: North Melbourne and West Melbourne (Victoria)

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