Thursday, April 25, 2013

Captain Edward Goldsmith and the wreck of the "James" 1830

From: Graeme Henderson Unfinished Voyages: Western Australian Shipwrecks 1622-1850
University of Western Australian Press 2nd Edition 1980

VOYAGE of the JAMES 1829-1830
Master mariner Captain Edward Goldsmith of Rotherhithe, just 25 years of age, and newly wed to Elizabeth Day on 24 June 1829 at St George, Derby Square, Liverpool, Lancashire, England, began preparations for his commission to command the brig James, a 195 ton second class American vessel built in 1812, to the new settlement on the Swan River, Western Australia. By December 1829, the James had arrived at a port in Ireland laden with agricultural implements, produce, and passengers. The brig was sheathed in copper in 1826, and originally built with a single deck, but in 1827 it was raised, given a new deck and upperworks, and equipped with three cannon. When the vessel finally set sail on December 23, 1829 for Western Australia, Captain Goldsmith's wife Elizabeth, also on board, was three months' pregnant.

One passenger who gave Captain Goldsmith endless trouble on the voyage was an Irish soldier, Captain Theophilius Ellis of the 1st Royal Infantry (Ireland) Regiment. Against advice from Lloyds' underwriters not to board the James, he proceeded with his plan to accompany his sister and her nine children, and arranged with Captain Goldsmith to partition the vessel to house his sister, her family, and another Irishman, Captain Francis Whitfield. When the ship sailed, Ellis found that the separate section he had requested was filled with stores and luggage belonging to the ship, and the vessel so crowded with passengers - "the class of labourers" - 84 crew, pigs, geese, sheep and water casks, there was barely enough room to stand on deck. Ellis was versed in the law sufficient to invoke The Passenger Act of 1828, which was intended to enforce sanctions against ship owners who falsely advertised luxurious accommodation, and tyrannical masters who treated passengers with total disdain. His later report to the Colonial Secretary included these vivid details of the cabin space, the toilet, and Captain Edward Goldsmith's methods of dealing with him:

"... there was scarcely room for 24 persons to eat and sleep in a space 19'6 x 21'3 [feet] out of which the bulk of the pumps and mainmast of 52 [square] feet is to be deducted. We therefore suffered great inconvenience and want of air particularly as the height between decks in the greater part of our cabin is but 4'6 between the beams and 4' to the beams instead of 5'6 as required by Act of Parliament. In this state we sailed ..., the deck strewn with our packages containing cutlery and goods which ought to have been under cover. There was no place reserved. The goods we had with us (and some were left behind) were destroyed, not only by salt water, but by the treatment they received by the people on deck who broke into our casks by jumping on them, destroying china, glass, and making a passage over them. Our beds and boxes of clothes, silks and bonnets were completely soaked with salt water.

We had to sit up at night for the first week to sop up the water that poured down on us. The water closet that was in our cabin for the use of the families was so badly managed that it let in the sea and helped to flood us...." (cited in Unfinished Voyages, Graeme Henderson, UWA Press, 1980, 2nd edition, p.156).

Seven weeks out on the voyage, and the ship's bows needed urgent repairs. Captain Goldsmith berthed the James at the port of Bahia (Salvador, Brazil) on 23 February 1830 where Ellis and Whitfield promptly requested the vessel be condemned, the passengers refunded their money, and another vessel to carry them to W.A, demands which the Consul refused. Goldsmith in turn suggested Ellis pay for the expensive delay, and when they all re-embarked, relations between Ellis and Goldsmith only worsened.

Ellis and the males of his family had slept on the Round House up on deck at night to make extra space for the women to sleep down below, but Ellis became ill after leaving Bahia and stayed on the Round House during the day. Captain Goldsmith ordered him off the Round House, and erected a gate to keep him and his family away. Further prohibitions were enforced: Ellis and his family were denied the use of the ship's cabin; their servant was solicited by Goldsmith to join him instead of working for Ellis, and when their servant refused, he was not allowed to go aft of the mast to where the Ellis group was situated. Finally, Goldsmith placed water casks over the deck light above the Ellis' cabin so they sat - or rather stood - in darkness day and night.

Five people had died on the voyage by 4 March, 1830: the cook, only one week out from Ireland; a woman Mrs Stewart who told Goldsmith she blamed the crowded state of the vessel for her poor health; a Mr Smith, employed by the owners of the James, who went ashore at Bahia and refused to return until Goldsmith plied him with alcohol and brought him back on board, only to die a week later; and the wife and child of a Mr Entwhistle. Rations on board were at their minimum.

Elizabeth Goldsmith and new-born son Richard thrown into the surf
When the James arrived finally at the Swan River on 8 May 1830, Elizabeth Goldsmith was due to give birth. Twelve days later, on 20 May 1830, the birth of their son Richard Sydney was announced in the press. But the next day, the James was blown ashore and wrecked, along with the brig the Emily Taylor.

In 1947, this account was published of Elizabeth and son Richard's survival of the wreck of the James at Swan River in May 1830:

Seven Shipwrecks

"THE captain then fearing the ship would go to pieces got the gig launched alongside and told the passengers that was the only chance of escape. One woman, her husband being on shore, was the only person who would venture. The rope the sailor took ashore was fastened to the stem of the boat and another from the ship to the stern, so that the boat might be hauled backwards and forwards to the shore. This time the boat went safely, and the people rushing into the water took the woman out. The boat was then hauled back to the ship and the next time it was filled with passengers and landed them safely. The third time, being filled principally with women and children, the boat had the rope passed out to it too fast, and it broached to, turning right over . . . The people's heads popped up like corks; they were all rescued.

Thenceforward more care was taken and the remainder of the passengers were safely landed.

"During that bad hurricane there were seven vessels wrecked in a distance of eight miles. One of the ships, the James brig, was cast ashore. During the gale the captain's wife was confined. They took the mother and baby, sewed them in a blanket steeped in rum, threw them off the gig into the sea and hauled them ashore through the surf. They arrived safely and there was no damage whatever to either. (The child, Goldsmith by name, grew up to be a fine young man; he joined a bank in Hobart and died in 1868).
Source: Western Mail (Perth, WA : 1885 - 1954), Thursday 25 December 1947, page 11

Captain Ellis' property
As soon as the James arrived in the Gages Roads, a letter was lodged with the Colonial Secretary, signed by eleven passengers, praying that His Excellency the Governor would be pleased to order an enquiry into the breaches of agreement and ill-treatment, which the passengers had experienced during the voyage from England. Captain Goldsmith refused to deliver the passenger's goods until ordered by the Colonial Secretary to do so on 10 June ....

Colonial Times, Hobart Town, 9 July 1830.

On the arrival of the James, Captain Ellis was anxious to take his tent on shore, and prepare for his family to land, but was prevented by the order of the master.
"Captain Ellis applied to the Magistrates respecting the detention of his property, and an investigation took place before P. Brown Es., and the highly respectable gentlemen who form our Bench.
"It appeared that on the arrival of the vessel, a bill was furnished to Captain Ellis, for balance of passage, and other charges.
"The first item was 50 balance of passage money, which was immediately set aside, as it appeared by a written agreement produced that this sum was left in hand, as a security for the receiving good provisions and accommodations, which was clearly proved had not been given to the passengers.
"The other charges were for attendance, which also was part of the agreement, and a charge of freight double the amount per ton of what was stated in the advertisements of the terms of the vessel.
"Every charge being entirely disproved by documents produced, the Magistrates gave their decision, that the bill furnished was got up for the purpose of illegally detaining Captain Ellis' property, and a peremptory order was given by the Colonial Secretary for the immediate delivery of the goods."
Colonial Times, Hobart Town, 9 July 1830.

A further series of disasters and deaths occurred that were directly associated with the wreckage of the James, but Captain Edward Goldsmith, his wife Elizabeth and their new son Richard, departed the Swan River soon afterwards, boarding the Bombay for Hobart, Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) on 23 June 1830, arriving in Hobart on 26 July and departing on the Elizabeth for Sydney on 17 September, 1830.

Hobart Courier 31 July 1830

Colonial Times, 17 September 1830

Detail of the Port Officer's Log, the arrival of the Bombay at the Port of Hobart from Calcutta and Swan River, July 26, 1830.

From this nightmarish experience as a young master of a poorly built barque on one of his very first commands in 1830, Captain Edward Goldsmith took two key precautions over the next two decades: the choice of well-built barques, the Rattler being his finest, commissioned for him by owner Robert Brooks and which he commanded to VDL throughout the 1840s and advertised in superlatives; and direction of The Hobart Town and Launceston Marine Insurance Company, established in 1836, which advertised his name as Director in the company of Askin Morrison, Henry Hopkins, Thomas Giblin, and John Foster continuously up to the date of his final farewell to Tasmania in December 1855. His wife's brother, master mariner Captain James Day, returned, however, to witness his daughter's - Captain Goldsmith's niece - marriage in 1871 to photographer Thomas J. Nevin.

Hobart Courier 5 December 1846

For London To Sail in Early January
The new and remarkably fast-sailing barque RATTLER
552 Tons Register, EDWARD GOLDSMITH Commander, having a considerable portion of her cargo engaged will be despatched early in January. This ship has magnificent accommodation for cabin passengers, and the 'tween-decks being exceedingly lofty, she offers an excellent opportunity for a limited number of steerage passengers.
A plan of the cabin may be seen, and rate of freight and passage learnt, by application to Captain Goldsmith on board, or to THOS. D. CHAPMAN & Co. Macquarie-street, Nov. 17.

Captain Goldsmith, Director of The Hobart Town and Launceston Marine Insurance Company
Colonial Times, Hobart, 8 June 1855

THE WRECK of the JAMES (1830)

The Gages Roads: Narrative of a Voyage to the Swan River 1831

"For some reason the pioneers hung tenaciously to the entrance to Cockburn Sound through the passage between Garden Island and Carnac. Far less dangerous was the passage now known a the South Passage, and the rounding of Rottnest the present accepted fairway ... "
This review of the disastrous decision to use the entrance to Cockburn Sound by early pioneers was published in 1932, but the alarm was loudly sounded a month before the James had even left British shores. The Sydney Gazette of 6 November 1829 ran an article incredulous of the choice of the Swan River, Western Australia as a suitable site for a new colony:

Sydney Gazette 6 November 1829

On Saturday last the long expected Calista arrived from England, via the new settlement at Swan River. The accounts brought by this ship of that place are far from satisfactory. The proposed colonization would seem to be a total failure. We have not room in our present number for the detailed account we purpose to give of the proceeding of the new colonists; we can only now give a mere outline thereof. Governor Stirling, the autocrat of all the swans and gulls, and other of his subjects under the "Act of Parliament" arrived in due course at his seat of empire. His entrance thereunto was far from being propitious. The master of his ship, the Parmelia, on approaching the opening, which when Captain Stirling was in the Success frigate had been found by him to be so excellent and accessible, thought he saw somewhat of breakers, and insisted upon hauling his wind until a boat had been sent to survey. But Captain Stirling was so satisfied of the accuracy of his own observation, that he insisted upon proceeding, and upon the master refusing positively so to do, Captain Stirling himself took charge of the ship, and boldly steered for the entrance. Unfortunately the ship struck, and although she beat over the obstruction, yet it was with so much damage that she has been despatched to the Isle of France, where she must be hove down to repair. The next ship which arrived was the Marquess of Anglesea. This vessel struck and received so much injury that it was found necessary to make a store house of her, as it was considered unsafe to send her again to sea. The Calista had the good fortune to get away with only the loss of her three large anchors. The Amity, a Colonial brig of the sister Colony, also got onshore, and was nearly wrecked in Gage's roads. Thus much for "the safe harbours and good anchorages," of the new colony. We now come to the land part of the affair. The entrance to Swan River was found totally inaccessible, even to boats; there being not more than four feet water upon the bar over which it unceasingly broke. The stores, and every thing else taken from the shipping, was therefore of necessity landed upon the beach, and carried a long distance across the land to the river inside the bar, to be again embarked in boats for conveyance to the proposed settlement, some 8 or 10 miles up the river. But the very worst part of the "Peel Colony," (as Mr. Hume called it in Parliament) is that the country itself seems to be altogether unsuited for the residence of man. The land is barrenness itself. Sand, sandstone, and granite, without an acre of good land, as far as observation has gone. The want of water is also most seriously felt; instead of those purling streams, and bubbling springs, which the London papers spoke of, the only bubbling appears to have been that which the Peel folks effected. In a word, the whole scheme seems to be an entire failure of the most unqualified description.
Sydney Gazette, 6 November 1829

June 18, 1829: the official Proclamation was read on
Garden Island to officials and colonists.
Morison, George Pitt, 1861-1946.
The foundation of Perth [picture] / G. Pitt Morison, 1929.
Original oil on canvas held by Art Gallery of Western Australia


Panorama of the old Fremantle Power Station and the site of the James wreck
Courtesy of Luke Austin 2008

From W.A. Museum Shipwrecks Database.
NB: the webpage has mistakenly named Captain Goldsmith as Captain Goldfields, an error since corrected. The error was made by Kenderdine, S., 1995,Shipwrecks 1656-1942: A guide to historic wreck sites of Perth. Report - Department of Maritime Archaeology Western Australian Maritime Museum, No. 99.

"The wreck event
On 21 May James was blown ashore along with the brig Emily Taylor. Captain Goldsfield [sic] refused to deliver passengers their goods until ordered to do so by the colonial secretary. Several incidents occurred involving injury to a man using explosives on the vessel, and another drowned during the transfer of goods by boat from the wreck to Fremantle.
Plans were made for the wreckage of the vessel to be incorporated into the building of a jetty but this never eventuated. There are no records to indicate James was ever refloated.
Site location
The site is adjacent to the South Fremantle Power Station, close to James Rocks, about 50 metres from shore. It is 81 metres south-east of the cooling water outlet pipe and the shore end is about 3.1 metres from the rocky sea-wall in front of the power station.
Site description
The wreckage once lay on a sandy and rock bottom in 4 metres of water. It is significantly affected by sand movement in the area and is now completely covered. Various artefacts have been removed from the vicinity of the site.
Guns recovered
In 1976, a carronade was found about 600 metres from the James wreck site. This heavily concreted iron gun was removed from the site by Museum staff and after conservation treatment an excellently preserved 6­pounder trunnion carronade was revealed (Green et al., 1981:101). A gun carriage was later built for its display at the Museum.
A second gun, this time a small iron signal cannon which had been spiked, was found by in the grounds of the abattoir some 20 kilometres from the wreck site. Research revealed it had been removed from the vicinity of the wreck and was probably the second of the three guns known to have been aboard. A third gun remains on the site.
Statement of significance
Technical and scientific
Analysis of the design of the carronade from the James wreck site may help in understanding the manufacturing process of these ordinances. Conservation of James's carronade has resulted in new methods of treating salt impregnated iron artefacts. The in situ analysis of the third remaining gun can also provide useful information.

W.A. Museum Shipwrecks Database.
NB: the webpage has mistakenly named Captain Goldsmith as Captain Goldfields, an error since corrected. The error was made by Kenderdine, S., 1995, Shipwrecks 1656-1942: A guide to historic wreck sites of Perth. Report - Department of Maritime Archaeology Western Australian Maritime Museum, No. 99.

Survey of the Port Coogee Development Area, Jeremy Green, Report - Department of Maritime Archaeology Western Australian Museum, No. 213, 2006
Read the Report here – pdf – courtesy of the curators of W.A. Maritime Museum.

Graeme Henderson Unfinished Voyages: Western Australian Shipwrecks 1622-1850
University of Western Australian Press 2nd Edition 1980

Many thanks to the curators at the Western Australian Maritime Museum.

Wednesday, April 24, 2013

Tom and May Nevin at the Union Chapel flower show 1892

Creator: Clifford, Samuel, 1827-1890
Publisher: [ca. 1865]
Description: 1 stereoscopic pair of photographs : sepia toned ; 9 x 18 cm. (mount)
Format: Photograph
ADRI: AUTAS001125299602
Source: W.L. Crowther Library

Samuel Clifford and partner Thomas Nevin produced this photograph as a stereograph of the Congregational Union Chapel in Bathurst Street Hobart not long after it was built by the Rev. J. W. Simmons in 1863. It was also known as “The Helping Hand Mission” . In 1892 the Congregational Union held a flower show at the Chapel to raise much needed funds for repairs to the building. Tom and May Nevin - the two eldest of Thomas and Elizabeth Nevin's six children - entered chrysanthemums and flower arrangements as a contribution.

In 1914 the Chapel was still functioning as a Haven for Homeless Men, (The Mercury 21 May 1914), but by the 1920s it was used as a cinema and called the Amazu Theatre. In 1937  the building was purchased by the Hobart Repertory Theatre Society, converted into a "legitimate" theatre at a cost of £1500 pounds and renamed The Playhouse. The venue has been maintained as a public theatre by the Hobart Repertory Theatre Society since its conversion in 1938.

Title: Union Chapel (later The Playhouse) Bathurst Street ca. 1880
ADRI: PH30-1-3009
Source: Archives Office of Tasmania

The Playhouse Theatre, Bathurst St Hobart
Photo copyright © KLW NFC 2013
The Playhouse website:

MAY NEVIN and younger brother TOM NEVIN
Mary Florence "May" Nevin (1872-1955)
Thomas James "Sonny" Nevin (1874-1948)

Both Tom and May Nevin were born at their father's photographic studio, 140 Elizabeth Street, Hobart Town. May was born in 1872, Tom in 1874. Tom Nevin had just turned 18 yrs old when he entered six chrysanthemums in the Union Chapel flower show. He was christened with his father's name - "Thomas James Nevin" but was known as "Sonny". May was christened Mary Florence and only ever known to descendants as May.

Tom Nevin, prize for six chrysanthemums,
May Nevin, prize for collection of flowers
The Mercury 4 May 1892


Flower Show. - A flower show was opened in tho Union schoolroom last night, in aid of the Union Chapel repair fund, and considering that it was only decided last Wednesday to have the exhibition, the display made was very prize worthy and well worth seeing. Tables placed along the side of the room were covered with a splendid collection of flowers, pot plants, bouquets, and floral designs. The latter were as a rule got up with good taste, and looked very pretty, the first prize, a model ship decorated principally with chrysanthemums, being well worthy of a place in a more pretentious show. The inclement weather of the past few days told against a first-class exhibit of cut flowers, but still there were some splendid dahlia and chrysanthemum blooms, and the competition in hand, table, and bridal bouquets was close. Messrs. Aldred and Jones were the judges, and the following were their awards:-Floral design, W. Green, 1 and 2 ; table bouquet, Zella Koerbin, 1 ; W. Green, 2. Pot plants, W. Green, 1 ; Ada Ward, 2. Bridal bouquet, W. Green, 1 ; Miss Kerr, 2. Hand bouquet, Miss Sea- brooks, 1 ; Daisy Wookey, 2. Six chrysanthemums, Tom Nevin, 1 ; May Nevin, 2. Collection of flowers, Herbert Kirby, 1 ; Violet Kirby, 2. Buttonholes, Philip Andrews, 1 ; Mabel Wiggins, 2. Ladies' spray 3, Miss Moore, 1 ; Miss F. Kerr, 2. There was also a sale of useful articles and a refreshment stall, at which tea was served up during the evening. Several ladies played selections on the piano, and Mr. Dontith played several violin solos. A large number of people visited the show, and expressed themselves highly pleased with the display made. The Mercury 4 May 1892

May Nevin ca. 1950 (aged 78yrs) and her brother Tom Nevin ca. 1946 (aged 72yrs)
Copyright © KLW NFC 2013  ARR

When Thomas James Nevin jnr, known as Tom or 'Sonny,' died in January 1948 (born 1874), he was officially Sergeant T. Nevin of the Salvation Army. A service was held for him, per this notice in the Mercury, dated 24 January 24, 1948.

Salvation Army
THE CITADEL LiverpoolSt., Tonight at 8. Open Air Meeting, Collins St. Sunday, 11 a.m., Holiness unto the Lord, 3 p.m. Praise Meeting., 7 p.m. Memorial Service to the late Sergeant T. Nevin ...

Chrysanthemums / F Styant-Browne -- 1021
Title:[Northern Tasmanian Camera Club photographic album no. 35 1897] / Northern Tasmanian Camera Club
Creator:Northern Tasmanian Camera Club
Description:1 album (24 photographic prints : b&w ; 29 x 37 cm
Format:Album, Photograph
Information under each photograph includes photograph number, subject, time of day and date, light, plate, development, lens, stop, exposure, toning and name of club member.


Sunday, April 21, 2013

Mr Lipscombe, Captain Goldsmith and the Mammoth Strawberry

Elizabeth Nevin’s uncle, Captain Edward Goldsmith, master mariner of merchant ships from London to the colony of Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania) from the 1830s until his retirement back in Kent (UK) in 1856, and Hobart  businessman and nurseryman Frederick Lipscombe, had maintained a friendly and profitable business relationship over twenty years until one day in June 1853, they had a very public falling-out over the Mammoth Strawberry, or so it seemed at first blush.

Frederick Lipscombe (1808-1887) nurseryman,
reproduced by J. W. Beattie from an earlier photographer's portrait 
In: Members of the Parliaments of Tasmania No. 82
Publisher: Hobart : J. W. Beattie, [19--]
ADRI: AUTAS001136191079
Source: Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts

Frederick Lipscombe's arrangements with Captain Goldsmith involved the careful selection and packaging of valuable plants for import and export to and from Europe, Mauritius, and the Americas. The Hobart Courier of the 14 December 1848 ran a list of plants including the Mammoth strawberry, imported for Lipscombe on Goldsmith's finest barque, The Rattler, with the criticism that although the flora had arrived in good condition, the Mammoth and Elisabeth strawberries had not been put in pots prior to sailing but put into mould at the bottom of a case and had perished.


IMPORTED PLANTS.- ... The flora of this country has also received a great addition by the importation of some plants for Mr. F. Lipscombe in the Rattler, Captain Goldsmith. The following are in good condition :-Lilium rubrum, schimenes picta, campanula novilis, gloxinia rubra, Rollisonii, speciosa alba, and Pressleyans ; anemone japónica, lilium puctata, torenia concolor, lobelia erinus compacta, myasola (a "forget-me not"), and another new specimen of the same; cuphan mineara, weigella roses, phlox speciosa, cuphea pletycentra, lantana Drummondii and Sellowii, phloz rubra, achimines Hendersonii ; with the following camellias - Queen Victoria,- elegans, tricolor, triumphans, speciosa, Palmer's perfection, and Reevesii. These were all contained, with others, in one case ; they were well established in pots before packing, which has tended to their preservation. Another case contains lemon thyme, sage, and the Mammoth and Elisabeth strawberries. The same course in this instance had not been pursued; the plants were put into mould at the bottom of the case, and in almost every instance have perished. A quantity of carnations unfortunately experienced the same fate. Importers will therefore do well to impress upon their agents in England the necessity of establishing them in pots before packing. In the exportation of Van Diemen's Land shrubs to the United Kingdom, India, and Mauritius, Mr. Lipscombe always adopts this method, and it is of rare occurrence for any specimen to be lost. From The Hobart Courier, 14 December 1848

Just a few weeks later, in January 1849, and in rebuke of Lipscombe's implied criticism of Goldsmith and the loss of the Mammoth strawberries, a consortium of civic leaders held a Testimonial to Captain Edward Goldsmith. The Hobart Courier 20 January 1849 reported:

"A handsome twelve-ounce silver goblet was presented to Captain Goldsmith on Wednesday, last, as a testimonial in acknowledgment of the services he has rendered to floral and horticultural science in Van Diemen's Land, by importing rare and valuable plants from England." 
If Frederick Lipscombe had been invited to attend, he did so with lips already pursed at the serious wealth acquired by those "Heads of Establishment" present who had amassed personal fortunes on the back of convict transportation. He was a committed supporter of The Anti-Transportation League whose members pledged  not to employ convicts and to use all constitutional means to resist further transports. By late 1852, Queen Victoria was questioning transportation and in early 1853, the Colonial Secretary pledged to send no more convicts to Van Diemen’s Land. In 1856, Van Diemen’s Land was renamed Tasmania.

1853: "on the other side"
When Captain Edward Goldsmith opened his evening edition of the Hobart Town Courier on 17 June 1853, he was astonished to see his name among the Committee members for the "Demonstration" planned as a Jubilee to celebrate the end of convict transportation to Tasmania.


General intelligence.
An adjourned preliminary meeting of the gentlemen desirous to promote the Demonstration on occasion of the Cessation of Transportation to Van Diemen's Land was held yesterday, at Mr. Chapman's offices, Macquarie-street, that gentleman being called to the chair, when the result of the conference with the Corporation of Hobart Town when was reported. The Chairman expressed his regret that the Mayor and Aldermen had determined to stand aloof upon the occasion, but hoped that their decision would not be allowed to interfere with the expression of joy on the part of the loyal inhabitants of this city.

The Chairman also reported that he had received a communication from Mr. Knight, the pyrotechnist, offering to get up a display of suitable fireworks for the occasion.

The Sub-Committee appointed at the last meeting having reported progress, one of whom (Mr. Lipscombe) stating that Captain Goldsmith and Alderman Bonney had consented to act on the Committee.

At the suggestion of Mr. Chapman, Mr. Allport moved that the gentlemen present be appointed a General  Committee for the purpose of the Demonstration. He referred to the objections which had been taken, and, stating his belief that only one opinion should have been entertained upon the subject, considered it a duty they owed to the Queen and country, now that their claims were conceded, to receive that concession with gratitude and rejoicing.

Mr Lipscombe seconded the motion, which was carried.

An Executive Committee was then appointed. Mr. Toby was elected secretary, Mr. W. Robertson treasurer, and the Commercial Bank bankers.

On the motion of Mr. Brewer, seconded by Mr. Kissock, a circular was ordered to be addressed to the Heads of Establishments in Hobart Town, requesting them to give a General Holiday on the 10th August next, and to unite in making it a day of thanksgiving and rejoicing.
The Chairman was requested to communicate with Mr. Knight respecting the fireworks, and application is to be made to the Government for the use of the New Market to refresh the children.

The usual vote of thanks having been awarded and acknowledged, subscriptions were then taken. The total amount at present subscribed is near upon £300 ....

Three days later, a surprised and indignant Captain Goldsmith wrote to the Hobart Town Daily Courier, denying he had consented to act on the Demonstration Committee in a conversation with Lipscombe on "Thursday last", a conversation in which Goldsmith had asked about the growth of the Mammoth Strawberry in the colony, and that his inquiry about the "last meeting" in that conversation was in reference to giving Lipscombe authorisation to insert his name as a subscriber on the Gardeners and Amateurs' Horticultural Society. On the 20th June, the Hobart Courier not only printed Captain Goldsmith's letter, they printed Mr. Lipscombe's "explanation" in reply, along with the letter in quotation marks, as an Advertisement:

To the Editor of the Hobart Town Daily Courier.
Sandy Bay,
Monday Evening, June 20, 1853. 

IN YOUR JOURNAL of this evening is the following advertisement :
"Davey-street, 20th June, 1853.
SIR,-Mr. Lipscombe, as one of the, Sub Committee of the Demonstration movement, having, much to my surprise (as reported in, your journal of Friday last), stated that I have consented to act on the Committee, I desire to contradict that statement through your columns.I never had any conversation with Mr. Lipscombe as to the Demonstration movement. I had a conversation with him, I think, on Thursday last in reference to the growth of the Mammoth strawberry in this colony, and asked how the last meeting was attended, meaning the Gardeners and Amateurs' Horticultural Society, to which institution I authorised Mr. Lipscombe to insert my name as a subscriber.
Your obedient Servant,

Below this quoted letter appeared Mr Lipscombe's reply:

To the above I can only reply, that not on Thursday, but, I believe, on Tuesday last, I asked Captain Goldsmith (as I was requested to do), if I might put his name down as one of the Committee of the Demonstration for the 10th of August. His answer was, "O, yes." He certainly on that occasion told me he but lately received a case of plants from England, amongst which was the Mammoth Strawberry, and asked me how mine were getting on. In consequence of the above distinct understanding on my part, I requested his name might be inserted on the Committee at the meeting on Thursday last. On Friday he called on me and stated that he must have misunderstood me when I asked him to be on the Committee: he thought I had meant the Gardeners and Amateurs' Committee. He further said, "These fellows have been badgering the life out of me to-day ; as it does seem inconsistent of me, as I have always been on the other side, and I must get you to contradict it, and get my name taken off." Not knowing how to contradict the truth, I left that task to Captain Goldsmith himself, and hence the above letter.
In conclusion I can only say, that, having known Captain Goldsmith for the last twenty years, I am bound to believe him when he says it was a misunderstanding on his part (although a strange one), and I have requested the Secretary to withdraw his name from the Committee.
Your obedient Servant,

Dinner service (plate) embellished with the emblem of the Gardeners and Amateurs' Horticultural Society.  Manufactured by Venables, Mann & Co (mark underneath)
This item is held at the Allport Museum, State Library of Tasmania
Photo copyright © KLW NFC 2015

Frederick Lipscombe was not holding back when he underscored the divisions in Hobart society between those who were true "locals" such as himself and Morton Allport who were thoroughly fed up with living in an isolated society founded on a criminal population (73,500 convicts transported in a 50-year period), and those who were "on the other side", i.e. Captain Edward Goldsmith who was not a colonist and would never become one, supporting and conspiring with those of the British-born establishment grown wealthy from the transportation of free convict labour, the Mayor and Aldermen included who also withdrew from the "Demonstration" committee. Of course, there was a lot more to it, and the divisions and anxieties festering in Hobart society in 1853 are present today: the local Tasmanian v. the Mainlander: the tough masculine hero v. the shrinking violet; the under-educated poor v. the lazy middle class educated ruling coalition. Captain Goldsmith, 49 yrs old by 1853, with large estates in Kent, had commanded some of the worst built barques across the most dangerous oceans in the world to import produce and expertise to enrich the colony, while all Frederick Lipscombe appeared to do was publicly lie in his own defense, and fret over winning first prize at the next horticultural show. A few months later, in the December show of 1853, he did indeed win prizes: second prize for a collection of roses; two first prizes for British Queen strawberries; one for the best collection of gooseberries, and a first prize in the wine department for damson, red-currant, black-currant, raspberry, gooseberry and cherry wines.

Mr Lipscombe's prizes, The Hobart Courier, 2 December 1853.

On the 10th August 1853, the 50th anniversary of the first British settlement in Tasmania was marked with an unofficial holiday to celebrate the end of convict transportation to the colony. John Nevin, former soldier of the Royal Scots and out-pensioner from Chelsea had arrived a year earlier on the transport Fairlie, in July 1852 with his family of four children and their mother Mary. Thomas, the eldest, just ten years old, would grow up to marry Captain Goldsmith's niece, Elizabeth Rachel Day, named after his wife Elizabeth Goldsmith nee Day.

G.M. Darrow, The Strawberry: History, Breeding and Physiology
Deborah Griscom Passmore (1840-1911) was an artist for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Division of Pomology for nineteen years. While her work for USDA focused on fruits, she was also a skilled painter of flowers and cacti.

In 1840, Myatt of Deptford introduced British Queen, his most famous strawberry, and one which Bunyard considered still among the best flavored in 1914. The Eleanor (1847), Admiral Dundas (1854) and Filbert Pine were other varieties raised by him. Admiral Dundas was an enormous pale orange-colored berry with pink flesh and good flavor. Eleanor was late blooming, bright red and acid and used for forcing for its very large fruits. Myatt's seedlings are supposed to have been raised from Knight's varieties. British Queen dominated the whole strawberry market for half a century. Possibly if virus-free plants were available it would be widely grown yet for its unsurpassed flavor, even though it is not hardy. Introduced into France in 1848, it was widely grown there.

Above: The Downton strawberry was the first of Thomas Andrew Knight's selections to draw attention to the merits of experimental crossing. One of 400 seedlings Knight raised from crosses in 1817, the Downton had large, oblong fruits and resembled the Chilean strawberry in many ways. Uncertainty about the Downton's parentage discouraged Knight from calling it a definite example of F. virginiana x F. chiloensis. (From Transactions of the Royal Horticultural Society, vol. 3, London, 1820)

Above:The Elton strawberry, second of Knight's famous varieties, came to rival the Downton in 1828 Had it not been spotted in the Royal Horticultural Society's garden for its health, hardiness bloom, and beautiful fruit it mighty have passed unnoticed, for Knight had overlooked the berry growing in his own garden. (From Pomological Magazine vol 3, 1830)

Keens Imperial, raised by Michael Keens, a market gardener of Isleworth in 1906, ranked as the first large-fruited market strawberry of any real quality. Keens grew it from seed of the Large White Chili. Although it lacked high flavor, it boasted a deep crimson fruit and symmetrical shape. Best of all, its projecting seeds made it a hardy traveler, armored against bruises. In 1819 seed from it produced Keens Seedling. (From Transactions of the Royal Horticultural Society, vol. 2, London, 1818)


The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste #5
P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams
Publisher James Vice, Jr.
Year 1853-1874
Copyright 1853-1874, James Vice, Jr.

British Queen Strawberries

"British Queen

Last autumn I applied a mulch of tan-bark, span-roof form, up to the tops of the plants. Previously, poudrette and street sweepings were worked in freely on either side of the rows. In the spring the tan-bark was levelled on either side of the plants, which, protected from sun and cold, looked as vivid as in the autumn! Subsequently an additional coat of tan was applied about three inches thick. The runners were allowed to grow pretty freely last season, for the benefit of my friends, which gave me rows of plants sparsely scattered instead of hills at three feet distances. It then occurred to me that this strawberry, under our scorching summer sun, might enjoy the protection of partial shading of its own leaves with decided advantage to its fruit. I have been justified in the result, and however much I may have heretofore admired this fruit; I pronounce it without hesitation, to be the finest staminate yet proved; and for beauty, size, flavor, and productiveness, I prefer it to any pistillate I have seen or tasted among eighty varieties of strawberries. The tannic acid liquid was occasionally applied to the plants during their flowering and fruiting season.

The fruit was among the earliest to ripen and the latest to produce, being furnished nearly four weeks.

We are indebted to B. G. Pardee, Esq., of Geneva, for specimens of this famous variety, grown by Dr. Hull, of Newbugh. They were of fair size, but not much more than half as large as we have seen them before, both in this country and in Europe. They must have been ripe at Newburg nearly ten days or a fortnight sooner than they would be at Rochester. A note from Mr. Pardee concerning Dr. Hull's culture will be found in another place.

I lend inclosed two small squares of enameled glass suitable for horticultural purposes. It is manufactured near this city, and is considered an admirable substitute for all other kinds for green-houses and forcing beds. One surface is made opake in its manufacture; it is roughened and similar in appearance to what is termed ground glass. Why import, while an article in all respects available is made in this country! The cost of this enameling on the glass is five cents per foot additional to the price of the glass, or five dollars per hundred feet Glass that I sell at $4.00, $4.25, and $4.50 per 100 feet, would be $9.00, $9.26, and $9.50; the price of the double thick glass sent, is double for the glass; enameling the same. Thos. P. James. - Philadelphia.

The glass referred to in Mr. Jauks note is a beautiful article, and we have no doubt will answer horticultural purposes well. It seems to be just the thing, but five cents per foot for the enameling makes it costly, and the cost is a matter of importance, especially to professional cultivators who use large quantities of glass, and have to study economy. Some sort of obscured glass seems to be necessary under our bright scorching sun for nearly all glass structures. The English rough plate glass, one-eighth of an inch thick, weighing two pounds to the foot, costs in England from eight cents to ten cents per foot, for sizes varying from 8x10 to 10x14; this is about the price of the enameled glass, common thickness. The double thick enameled would be, we suppose, about one-eighth of an inch thick, and would cost twice as much as the rough plate; but then there is to be added freight, duty, and other charges.

British Queen Strawberries #1

On the 14th of June, while on a visit at Newburgh, we went in company with Mr. Saul to see the famous British Queens, of Dr. Hull. The place has now passed out of the Doctor's hands, bat the Strawberry beds are there as usual, under the care of the same man who was gardener for the Doctor. We found a very fair crop on the plants, a good crop indeed for this country, although a considerable quantity had been gathered. The plants were set in rows 15 to 18 inches apart, and the ground was covered with straw between the rows to keep the fruit clean. The gardener informed us that the crop was smaller than usual, as the bed was old and many of the best plants had died out. He said they had not been mulched with tan, nor had any special care or application of any kind. He spoke unfavorably of the use of tan - thought it killed the plants in many cases, and said that Dr. Hull had changed his views in regard to its effects. He thinks (and we pretty much agree with him), that one of the chief causes of Dr. Hull's success was his deep trenching (four feet) of the ground, and enriching with well prepared composts, and afterwards working in poudrette and street sweepings.

Mr. Downing, it will be remembered, thought that the great point in the American culture of these Pine Strawberries, was to keep them warm in winter and cool' in summer, by means of mulching. One thing is very certain, they cannot be grown so easily as the Scarlets; but when Dr. Hull succeeds on the top of a high hill on very dry ground, we know of no good reason why others cannot succeed in more favorable locations.

British Queen Strawberries #2

Much the finest flavored and most beautiful large strawberries, that we have seen grown in this country, are some of this variety, raised this season by our neighbor, Dr. Hull of Newburgh. The color is darker, and they appear to have attained a perfection of quality never reached in England - where this superb sort is so justly popular. The crop is also one that would satisfy Mr. Longworth - much as he has abused the staminates for their barrenness. We will give some account of Dr. Hull's culture of this delicious amateur's variety in our next.

Strawberries as Big as Apples

Photo: Andy Zakeli
Mr Greer said the very big strawberries were two or three strawberries that had joined together. He said some of the new rubygem strawberries were "monsters".

Friday, April 19, 2013

One of the last portraits by Alfred Bock in Hobart 1865

PHOTOGRAPHERS Alfred BOCK and Thomas NEVIN 1860-1870s
THE CITY PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Tasmania

Girl with bare shoulders and ringlets
Photographer: Alfred Bock ca. 1865
Copyright © KLW NFC Imprint Private Collection 2013

This photograph of a teenage girl with bare shoulders and ringlets may be one of the very last taken by Alfred Bock in Hobart Tasmania before his departure in 1865. The design of the studio stamp on the verso was altered only minimally by his younger partner Thomas J. Nevin who bought the lease of the studio, shop, the glass house and darkroom, the stock of negatives, camera equipment, backdrops and furniture etc at auction on August 2nd, 1865. Thomas J. Nevin continued to use the studio stamp's design for his commercial studio portraiture for another decade, although he used at least six other designs for various formats and clients, including the Royal Arms insignia of the colonial warrant for his contracts and commission with the Colonial government.

Alfred Bock's studio stamp design and Thomas Nevin's adaptation after 1865
City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart Town
Copyright © Private Collections ARR 2007-2019

The Alfred Bock Legacy
The studio stamp (below) shows Alfred Bock's earlier bare design used in the late 1850s with the photographer's initials "A.B." encircled by a belt with buckle, the motto in Latin "Ad Altiora" (towards the heights) withing the belt's circumference, and a kangaroo perched on top. The studio's address lies outside the design.

Alfred Bock stamp, mid-1850s
Copyright © The Private Collection of John & Robyn Mcullagh 2006-2007 ARR.

According to the biographical entry in Kerr (ed. 1992: 77-78 - see below),  Alfred Bock (1835 -1920) inherited his father Thomas Bock's daguerreotype establishment at 22 Campbell Street Hobart Town in April 1855 and announced his own photographic business.

By July 1855 he had moved to Elliston's premises at 78 Liverpool Street, formerly occupied by the photographers Duryea and McDonald where he built a "Crystal Palace" studio and purchased photographic equipment from Ross of London. Financial difficulties ensued, and Bock moved several times.

In 1857 Alfred Bock was at 18 Macquarie Street. But on 6th February, 1858, he was insolvent. Later that year, Bock re-established himself at 140 Elizabeth Street, Hobart Town - a business he called The City Photographic Establishment - and stayed there until 1865 when he was again declared insolvent.  In late May 1865, Alfred Bock's wife gave birth to a daughter (Mercury, 23 May 1865). This event too may have precipitated Bock's decision to sell up and leave Tasmania. On August 2nd, 1865 the stock-in-trade of Alfred Bock at the City Photographic Establishment was advertised for auction.

Biographical entry in The Dictionary of Australian Artists: painters, sketchers, photographers and engravers to 1870, Joan Kerr (ed) 1992 MUP, pp77-78. Photos © KLW NFC 2014 ARR

Alfred Bock was declared insolvent in 1865 and abruptly departed Tasmania, financially bruised by a dispute with photographer Henry Frith about the origins and rights to the sennotype process, His (step) brother William Bock departed for NSW, arriving in New Zealand in 1868. On 2nd August 1865 the stock-in-trade of Alfred Bock at the City Photographic Establishment was advertised for auction. The sale included a glass house which Bock and Nevin had installed at the end of the laneway adjacent to the studio, listed as 138½ Elizabeth St. on valuation rolls.

This Day
WEDNESDAY, 2nd August
at 11 o'clock
On the premises, 140 Elizabeth-street, nearly opposite the town residence of Henry Hopkins, Esq.
Stock-in-Trade of a Photographer
Large Glass Studio, Shop Fittings, Oil Paintings, &c.
Have received instructions from John Milward, Esq, Assignee to the estate of Mr. Alfred Bock, to sell by auction, on the premises, Elizabeth-street, on THIS DAY, 2nd August, at 11 o'clock
THE STOCK-IN-TRADE of a Photographer, comprising -
Instruments, Chemicals, Background, accessories, chairs, tables, pedestals, vases, and many other necessary articles for taking photographic portraits, &c., &c.,
A large and exceedingly well furnished glass house, 22 feet by 8 feet, with dark room attached,
A few choice oil paintings in gilt frames, show cases, and photographs, an a small collection of books.
Terms - Cash
Source: Notice of auction of Alfred Bock's stock in trade, Mercury, 2 August 1865.

Thomas Nevin at The City Photographic Establishment
The premises consisting of two house-and-shop properties owned by Abraham Biggs snr at 138-140 Elizabeth St. Hobart were still "unfinished" in 1853 according to the Hobart Valuation Rolls. By 1854 he was listed as the proprietor with his son, builder Abraham Edwin Biggs. By 1857 they had let the premises at 140 Elizabeth St. to photographer Alfred Bock which he operated as a studio with his (step) brother William Bock until 1865. On Alfred Bock's departure to Victoria, commercial photographer and government contractor Thomas J. Nevin continued the business with the firm's name, The City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth Street, Hobart Town. He operated the studio in partnership with Robert Smith under the business name of Nevin & Smith briefly between 1866-68, vacating the shop, residence, glass house and studio a decade later, in 1876, to take up his appointment in full-time civil service as Office and Hall Keeper with residency at the Hobart Town Hall.

Photographer Thomas J. Nevin with stereoscopic viewer and white gloves mid-1860s.
Copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR. Watermarked. KLW NFC Private Collection. 

This photograph was taken in the mid 1860s of a young Thomas J. Nevin wearing white gloves and holding a stereoscopic viewer. It may have been taken in Bock's studio, even taken by Alfred Bock ca. 1867 since the drape patterned with large leaves in both cdv's might be the same, but there is no painted backdrop hanging on the wall in Bock's portrait of the young girl. The wall-hanging features a cascade of large leaves on the left falling onto a plinth with a cartouche inset on its front panel, and a terrace balcony railing. The tapis or floor covering with the dark and light diamond patterning which features in many of Nevin's studio portraits of private clients, differs from the well-defined dark pattern in Bock's cdv of the young girl. Visible too in the portrait of Thomas Nevin is the triangular base of a headrest. The verso of this cdv is blank, which usually meant it was only intended for viewing by Nevin’s cohort or immediate family, and has remained in the family by descent since ca. 1865-7.

A photograph taken by Thomas J. Nevin of his fiancee Elizabeth Rachel Day, ca. 1865-68, while in partnership with Robert Smith, operating with the business name Nevin & Smith, shows a different set of studio furnishings than those he had recently acquired from Alfred Bock’s auction.

Elizabeth Rachel Day, Thomas Nevin's fiancee (married 1871)
Taken by Thomas Nevin at Nevin & Smith (late Bock's) ca. 1865
140, Elizabeth Street Hobart Town
Full-length portrait, carte-de-visite. Private Collection
Copyright © KLW NFC 2009 ARR. Watermarked.

Married in 1871, by 1874 Thomas Nevin had installed his wife Elizabeth Rachel Nevin née Day and their first two children (Mary Florence Elizabeth, known as "May" b. 1872 and Thomas James jnr, known as "Sonny" b. 1874) in the residence next to the studio. Elizabeth's father, master mariner Captain James Day, also resided there with the family while on shore in 1874. Thomas Nevin maintained his New Town studio (where he had first opened his professional practice in 1864) concurrently with his commercial practice at The City Photographic Establishment, Elizabeth St. from ca. 1865-1876. He procured government contracts on the recommendation of Attorney-General W. R. Giblin with the Hobart Municipal Police Office to photograph prisoners at the Port Arthur penitentiary (1872-4) and Hobart Gaol (1872-1886). By 1876, Nevin had set up studios at the Hobart Gaol and at the Municipal Police Office, Hobart Town Hall where he resided with his wife Elizabeth Rachel Nevin nee Day and four of his six surviving children up to his dismissal from the position of Keeper, allegedly for inebriation while on duty, in December 1880.

Thomas J. Nevin entrusted his private clients' requests for reproduction of his commercial stock including portraits, streetscapes and stereographs, to his close friend and colleague Samuel Clifford while Nevin was working for the Hobart City Council at the Hobart Town Hall in residence from 1876-1880, returning to professional photography at New Town in 1881 until retirement in 1886-88. Samuel Clifford ceased professional photography in 1878.

The studio and glass house 1870s

A view of Thomas Nevin's studio and shop, extreme right of frame, 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart
Stereograph by T. J. Nevin ca. 1867-70 of the City Photographic Establishment
The dark building next door at 138 Elizabeth St., Nevin's residence, was leased from A. E. Biggs
T. Nevin impress on lower centre of mount.
The Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery Collection TMAG Ref: Q1994.56.12

Another view of Thomas Nevin's studio and shop, extreme right of frame, at 140 Elizabeth St. Hobart
The dark building next door at 138 Elizabeth St., Nevin's residence, was leased from A. E. Biggs
Stereograph by T. J. Nevin ca. 1867-1870 of the City Photographic Establishment
TMAG Ref: Q1994-56-33

Archives Office Of Tasmania
Detail of larger photograph - see below and online at PH1/1/35, unattributed, 1870
The Royal Standard Hotel at 142 Elizabeth St. Hobart, cnr of Patrick St.
Thomas Nevin's studio, glass house and residence, 140 -138 Elizabeth St. Hobart
These buildings have since been demolished and street numbers changed.

Elizabeth St north 1870: the callouts show the rear of the Royal Standard Hotel on the corner of Patrick St. at 142 Elizabeth St. Hobart and the building next door at No. 140  (James Spence, licensee of the hotel from 1862). The path at viewer's left of the hotel leads upwards to the Trinity Church burial ground, located at the rear of Holy Trinity Church which has its entrance in Patrick St. Next door to the Royal Standard Hotel, looking down Elizabeth St. towards the River Derwent, is Thomas Nevin's shop front and studio, advertised as his business address, The City Photographic Establishment, 140 Elizabeth St. (half of house and shop front leased from James Spence). At the rear of 140 Elizabeth is the glass house which included a gallery, listed as 138½ Elizabeth St. and accessed by a side cart path, the property of A. E. Biggs. Next door (heading further down Elizabeth St towards the wharves) is Nevin's family residence, the dark building at 138 Elizabeth St. Hobart, which was listed as “unfinished” in 1853 together with the building at 140 Elizabeth St. according to the Hobart Valuation Rolls, but by 1854, both properties were listed in the names of Abraham Biggs and his son, builder Abraham Edwin Biggs. They were the lessors of the glass house, studio and residence, firstly to Alfred Bock (1856-1865) and then to Thomas Nevin (1865-1875). James Spence transferred the indentures on the Royal Standard Hotel at 142 Elizabeth St, and the cottage and shop at 140 Elizabeth St. to John Henry Elliott in January 1874. Abraham Edwin Biggs was still the lessor of 138 Elizabeth St. in 1878, selling up to Catherine Peck in 1886.

Between the studio, shop front and the residence at 138-140 Elizabeth Street was the glass house with a residence attached, listed variously in The Hobart Town Gazettes of 1872-4 with the address 138½ or 136½ Elizabeth Street, tenanted by Nevin's young apprentice William Ross. In mid 1875, Thomas Nevin ran a series of advertisements for the lease of the shop, studio and glass house as he prepared his family to take up residence at the Hobart Town Hall with his appointment in January 1876 as Hall and Office Keeper to the Hobart City Corporation.

Nevin's shop and glass house TO LET,
The Mercury 24 June 1875

TO LET, those eligible BUSINESS PREMISES in Elizabeth-street, presently occupied by Mr. Nevin, photographer. It is a double-windowed shop, has a large glass-house or gallery at the back, and has a side cart entrance. Apply to G.S. CROUCH, Auctioneer.
The glass house was eventually sold to photographer Stephen Spurling elder who auctioned it when he was declared bankrupt in November 1875.

Stephen Spurling elder, bankrupt, sale of photographer's glass house
The Mercury 29 November 1875

Girl with bare shoulders and ringlets
Photographer: Alfred Bock ca. 1865
Copyright © Photo KLW NFC Imprint Private Collection 2013


On board the "City of Hobart" 31st January 1872